Hannah on the Shawnee at European Contact

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Hannah on the Shawnee at European Contact

Postby E.P. Grondine » Fri Feb 01, 2013 7:50 pm

1586 SHAWNEE -
KISHPOKOTHA ON THE ROANOKE RIVER?

...This is improbable, however, as the Chowanocks lived in what
was then Virginia in the days of Captain John Smith, and are mentioned
by him under that name in his General History of Virginia.

They are first referred to in 1586 by Master Ralph Lane, com-
mander-in-chief of Sir Walter Raleigh's colony on Roanoke Island, sent
out from England in the preceding year. Lane states that, "to the north-
west the farthest place of our discovery was to Chawanock, distant from
Roanoke about 130 [?] miles." "Chawanock itself", he adds, "is the
greatest province and seigniorie lying upon that River [the Chowan]; and the
very town itself is able to put 700 fighting men into the field, besides the
force of the province itself. " The town of Chawanock' is shown on John
White's map of 1586, [BUT NOT AT 130 MILES FROM ROANOKE]

http://www.britishmuseum.org/research/s ... 3&partid=1

...

1632 SHAWNEE - TSAWIGHELI (Sewekily, Hathawakhila)

Captain Henry Fleet, one of the later Jamestown settlers, who had
been captured by the Nacostine [on the Anacostia River at the mouth of Oxon Run]
Indians on the Potomac River in 1621 and remained among them as a prisoner for
several years, after his return to England, made a number of trading
voyages to the Chesapeake Bay, and carried back cargoes of furs.
He was there in 1632, and sailed up the Potomac River to the head of
navigation [Great Falls].

In his Journal Fleet states, that "the Emperor [of the Powhatans?] is fearful
to punish the Nacostines [Anacostia], because they are protected by the MASSOMACKS
[MASSAWOMEKS ABOVE], or Cannyda [Canada?, or Conestoga?] Indians, who have used to convey all such English truck as comes into the [Potomac] River to the MASSOMACKS...
I find that the Indians of that populous place [the Massomack country] are governed
by four kings,whose towns are of several names, TONHOGA, MOSTICUM, SHAUNETOWA,
and USSERAHAK, reported above 30,000 [later math by Fleet based on 30 towns x 1000 inhabitants per town] persons, and that they have palisades about the towns, made with great trees, and with scaffolds upon the walls."

1632 FLEET'S ACCOUNT
(Fleet's Journal via Neill's Founders of Maryland, Albany, 1876)

[A rival had cleared out the beaver Fleet had ordered on the Potomac River. Fleet is at Anacostia when he meets the Massomack interpreter.}

"The 13th of June I had some conference with an interpreter of Massomack and of divers other Indians that had been lately with them, whose relation was very strange in regard of the abundance of people there, compared to all the other poor number of natives which are in Patomack and places adjacent, where are not above five thousand persons, and also of the infinite store of beaver they use in coats. Diverse were the imaginations that I did conceive about this discovery, and understanding that the river was not for shipping, where the[se] people were, not yet for boats to pass, but for canoes only. I found all my neighbor Indians to be against my design, the Pascattowies having had a great slaughter formerly by them to the number of one thousand persons in my time.

"They coming in their birchen canoes did seek to withdraw me from having any commerce with the other Indians; and the Nacostines were earnest in the matter, because they knew that our trade might hinder their benefit. Yet I endeavored to prosecute my trade with them nevertheless, and therefore made choice of two trusty Indians to be sent along with my brother, who could travel well.

"I find the Indians of that populous place are governed by four kings, whose towns are of several names, Tonhogao, Mosticum, Shaunetowa, and Usserahak, reported above thirty thousand persons, and that they have palisades about the towns made with great trees, and with scaffolds upon the walls. Unto these four kings, I sent four presents in beads, bells, hatchets, knives, and coats, to the value of ~8 sterling. The 14th of June they set forth, and I entreated them to bring these Indians down to the water to the Falls, where they should find me with the ship.

"On Monday, the 25th of June, we set sail for the town of Tohoga [Tonhogao above], when we came to an anchor two leagues short of the Falls [Great Falls], being in the latitude of 41, on the 26th of June. This place without all question is the most pleasant and healthful place in all this country, and most convenient for habitation, the air temperate in summer and not violent in winter. It abounds with all manner of fish. The Indians in one night commonly will catch thirty sturgeons in a place where the river is not above twelve fathom broad. And as for deer, BUFFALOS, bears, turkeys, the woods do swarm with them, and the soil is exceedingly fertile, but above this place the country is rocky and mountainous like Canada.
{BUFFALO PATHS AVAILABLE FOR LAND TRANSIT.]

"The 27th of June I manned my shallop, and went up with the flood, the tide rising about four feet in height at this place. We had not rowed above three miles, but we might hear the Falls to roar about six miles distant, by which it appears that the river is separated with rocks, but only in that one place, for beyond is a fair river.

"The 8d of July, my brother, with the two Indians, came thither, IN WHICH JOURNEY THEY WERE SEVEN DAYS GOING, AND FIVE DAYS COMING BACK TO THIS PLACE. THEY ALL DID AFFIRM THAT IN ONE PALISADO, AND THAT BEING THE LAST OF THIRTY, THERE WERE THREE HUNDRED HOUSES, AND IN EVERY HOUSE FORTY SKINS AT LEAST, IN BUNDLES AND PILES.

[BASED ON THESE TRAVEL TIMES, WHILE THE VILLAGE OF "TIOGA" COULD HAVE BEEN AT ANTEITAM, HARPER'S FERRY, OR PAWPAW, WEST VIRGINIA, BUT THE SITE OF SHAWNEE OLDTOWN, MARYLAND SEEMS MOST LIKELY.]

"To this king was delivered the four presents, who dispersed them to the rest. The entertainment they had I omit as tedious to relate. There came with them, one-half of the way, one hundred and ten Indians, laden with beaver, which could not be less than 4000 weight. These Indians were made choice of by the whole nation, to see what we were, what was our intent, and whether friends or foes, and what commodities we had, but they were met with by the way by the Nacostines, who told them we purposed to destroy those that came in our way, in revenge of the Pascattowaies, being hired to do so for 114 skins, which were delivered aforesaid, for a present, as a preparative.

"But see the inventions of devils: the life of my brother, by this tale of the Nacostines, was much endangered. The next morning I went to the Nacostines to know the reason of this business, who answered, they did know no otherwise, but that if I would make a firm league with them, and give their king a present, then they would undertake to bring those other Indians down. The refusal of this offer was the greatest folly that I have ever committed, in mine opinion. "

"The 10th of July, about one o'clock we discerned an Indian on the other side of the river, who with a shrill sound, cried, "Quo! Quo! Quo!" holding up a beaver skin upon a pole. I went ashore to him, who then gave me the beaver skin, with his hatchet, and laid down his head with a strange kind of behavior, using some few words, which I [later] learned, but to me [then] it was a foreign language. I cheered him, told him he was a good man, and clapped him on the breast with my hands. Whereupon he started up, and used some complimental speech, leaving his things with me ran up the hill.

"Within the space of half an hour, he returned, with five more, one being a woman, and AN INTERPRETER [was this the woman?], at which I rejoiced, and so I expressed myself to them, showing them courtesies. These were laden with beaver, and CAME FROM A TOWN CALLED USSERAHAK, WHERE WERE SEVEN THOUSAND INDIANS. I carried these Indians aboard, and traded with them for their skins.

[FLEET'S BROTHER ARRIVED IN TOHOGA AROUND 20 JUNE, AND FLEET'S PRESENTS WERE DISTRIBUTED FROM THERE. THE TRAVEL TIME DOWN THE POTOMAC RIVER FROM TOHOGA WAS 5 DAYS, SO FROM TOHOGA (OLDTOWN MARYLAND?) TO USSERAHAK AND BACK TO GREAT FALLS HAD TO BE WITHIN A TRAVEL TIME OF 15 DAYS.]

"THEY DREW A PLOT OF THEIR COUNTRY, and told me there came with them sixty canoes, but were interrupted by the Nacostines, who always do wait for them, and were hindered by them. Yet these, it would seem, were resolute, not fearing death, and would adventure to come down. These promised, [that] if I would show them my truck, to get great store of canoes to come down with one thousand Indians that should trade with me. I had but little, not worth above one hundred pound sterling, and such as was not fit for these Indians to trade with, WHO DELIGHT IN HATCHETS, AND KNIVES OF LARGE SIZE, BROAD-CLOTH, AND COATS, SHIRTS, AND SCOTTISH STOCKINGS. The women desire bells, and some kind of beads.'

[THESE TRADE GOODS HAD TO HAVE COME FROM EITHER THE CAROLINA ENGLISH, THE FLORIDA SPANISH, THE CANADIAN FRENCH, OR THE DUTCH OF NEW AMSTERDAM]

"The 11th of July there came from another place seven lusty men, with strange attire; they had red fringe, and two of them had beaver coats, which they gave me. Their language was haughty, and they seemed to ask me what I did there, and demanded to see my truck, which, upon view, they scorned. They had two axes, such as Captain Kirk traded in Canada, which he bought at Whits of Wapping, and there I bought mine, and think I had as good as he.

"But these Indians, after they came aboard, seemed to be fair conditioned, and ONE OF THEM, TAKING A PIECE OF CHALK, MADE A PLAIN DEMONSTRATION OF THEIR COUNTRY, WHICH WAS NOTHING DIFFERENT FROM THE FORMER PLOT DRAWN BY THE OTHER INDIANS [THOSE FROM USSERAHAK]. THESE CALLED THEMSELVES MOSTIKUMS,[MUSKINGHUMS] BUT AFTERWARDS I FOUND THEY WERE OF A PEOPLE THREE DAYS' JOURNEY FROM THESE, AND WERE CALLED HERECKEENES, WHO, WITH THEIR OWN BEAVER, AND WHAT THEY GET OF THOSE THAT DO ADJOIN UPON THEM, DO DRIVE A TRADE IN CANADA, AT THE PLANTATION, WHICH IS FIFTEEN DAYS' JOURNEY FROM THIS PLACE. These people delight not in toys, but in useful commodities.

[THESE TWO MAPS MISSING NOW]

[NOTE WELL - IT APPEARS THAT EITHER THE PISCATWAY OR ANACOSTIA ALERTED THE FIVE NATIONS, OR ELSE THE ERIE LEARNED OF FLEET'S VISIT VIA "TOHOGA". WHOEVER THE "HERECKEENES" WERE, THEY LIVED THREE DAYS FROM THE MUSKINGUM RIVER, AND THEY WERE CLAIMING TITLE TO THE MUSKINGUM RIVER IN 1632, WELL BEFORE THE USUALLY GIVEN START OF THE "BEAVER WARS".]

"There was one William Elderton very desirous to go with them, but being cannibals I advised him rather to go with the others, whither I had sent a present, telling him they had no good intentions, yet upon his earnest entreaty, though unwilling, I licensed him to proceed, and sent a present with him to their king, one of them affirming that they were a people of one of the four aforenamed nations. But I advised my man to carry no truck along, lest it might be a means to endanger his life. Nevertheless, as I was afterwards informed, he carried a coat, and other things to the value of ten shillings more, and on the 14th of July departed.

"The 15th of July the [Tohoga] Indians were returned with the interpreter, according to promise, and, being come, looked about for William [Elderton] our interpreter, to whom I made relation whither he was gone, and they seemed to lament for him, as if he were lost, saying, that the men with whom he went would eat him, that these people were not their friends, but that they were HERECHEENES.

At the departure of these Indians [the Herecheenes], they told me that two hundred Indians were come to the place from whence they came with store of English truck to trade for beaver, and told us they had a purpose to come down and visit us, and take a view of our commodities, and they inquired after divers kinds of commodities, of which I had some very good, part of which I gave them, and sent them away, desiring them to follow after the other Indians, and to get away my man. All this time did my truck spend not so much upon beaver as upon victuals, having nothing but what we bought of the Indians, of whom we had fish, beans, and boiled corn. The seamen, nevertheless. hoped to sell away all their clothes for beaver.

The 18th of July I went to the Pascattowaies, and there excused myself for trading with those who were [their] enemies, and from thence I hired sixteen Indians, and brought them to the ship, and made one of them my merchant, and delivered to them, equally divided, the best part of my truck, which they carried up for me to trade with their countrymen; and I gave charge to the factor to find out my man, and to bring him along with them when they came back.

[PISCATOWAY AT OCCOQUAN AND/OR MARSHALL HALL AT THIS TIME. THEIR MIGRATION APPEARS TO HAVE OCCURRED IN 1609, SPARKING A MOSSAWOMEK ATTACK.]

"The 7th of August these Indians returned, and the TOHOGAES sent me eighty skins with the truck again, who showed these Indians great packs of beaver, saying there were nine hundred of them coming down by winter, after they had received assurance of our love by the USSERAHAKS, although the Nacostines had much labored the contrary.

[NOTE TRAVEL TIME TO TOHOGA AND BACK: 15 JULY-7 AUGUST. TOHOGAES MADE OFFER BY SENDING FURS BACK WITH GOODS.]

"And yet they were all at a stand for a time, by reason of two rumors that had raised, the one, that I had no good truck, neither for quantity, nor for quality; the other that one of our men was slain by the Hirechenes, three days' journey beyond them, and that they [the Herechenes] had beguiled us with the name of MOSTICUMS, ONE OF THEIR CONFEDERATE NATIONS. Nevertheless, they being desirous to have some trial of us, had sent us these skins, minding to have an answer whether we would be so satisfied of this deceit or no, and that THEY WOULD COME ALL FOUR NATIONS and trade with us upon their guard.

"I liked this motion very well, but was unwilling to protract time, because I had but little victuals, and small store of trucking stuff, and therefore I sailed down to Pascattowie, and so to a town on this side of it called Moyumpse. Here came [the] THREE CANNIBALS OF USSERAHAK, TOHOGA, AND MOSTICUM; THESE USED MANY COMPLIMENTING SPEECHES AND RUDE ORATIONS, SHOWING THAT THEY DESIRED US TO STAY FIFTEEN DAYS, AND THEY WOULD COME WITH A GREAT NUMBER OF PEOPLE THAT SHOULD TRADE WITH US AS FORMERLY THEY HAD SPOKEN. I gave them all courteous entertainment, and so sent them back again.

[THE ANACOSTIA HAD ACCUSED THE MASSOWEKS OF CANNIBALISM AND HOSTILITY.]

[THE REPRESENTATIVE FROM MOSTICUM ARRIVED 7 AUGUST; ASSUMING PRESENTS DISTRIBUTED FROM TOHOGA JUNE 20, 17 DAYS LATER. LESS THE 5 DAY CANEO TRIP FROM TOHOGA TO GREAT FALLS, MOSTICUM [MUSKINGUM] HAD TO BE WITHIN A 12 DAY ROUNDTRIP JOURNEY FROM TOHOGA.]

[THE REPRESENTATIVES FROM "SHAUNETOWA" WERE EXPECTED TO ARRIVE AROUND 21 AUGUST. ASSUMING PRESENTS DISTRIBUTED FROM TOHOGA JUNE 20, THAT IS 30 DAYS TRAVEL; LESS THE 5 DAY CANOE LEG DOWN THE POTOMAC, "SHAUNEETOWA" WAS 25 DAYS ROUNDTRIP FROM TOHOGA [OLDTOWN MARYLAND].

"TOHOA" - possibly cognate with "ford";

Gatschet, The Massawomeks, American Antiquarian, July, 1881, citing Margry:

"The following passages may also be adduced from Pierre Margry, De'couvertes, vol. I:

"they (the Sonnontouans) [Seneca], were told that we came from Onnontio
(the French Governor), to see the tribes called by them Toagenha, living
on the river Ohio, and that we requested them to furnish us a slave, as
a guide to these parts." (p. 130.)

"A prisoner, said to be of the Toaguenhas, spoke Algonkin, but his dialect
differed more from the good Algonkin than that of the Outaouacs [Ottowa]." (pp. 133-134.)

"The Soimontouans [Seneca] told our Dutch interpreter that he was
a fool to act as our guide to the Toaguenha, who were very dangerous
people, and would certainly assail us at night, after lurking
around our camp-fires; that we would run the danger of meeting
the Antastoes along the Ohio River [Andastes of Susquehanna River on Alleghenny],
who would most certainly "break our heads," and that on this account the Sonnontouans
declined to come with us, lest the extermination of the French
may be imputed to them. The distance from their town to
Ohio River was unanimously stated to be six days' land travel of
twelve leagues each day but if we travelled by water on Lake
Erie, we could reach the Ohio by three days' portages (pp. 137-
138). Report of one of La Salle's travels by the Abbe de
Gallinee, 1669-1670.

"To the name Tonhoga we may also compare that of the Tohoa-irough-roonan,
who lived within or north of the Alleghany ridge, perhaps in West Virginia,
and whom the Iroquois claimed to have conquered (Treaty of Lancaster, 1744).
....

Hanna: In an interesting article on these passages in Fleet's Journal, Mr.
Albert S. Gatschet suggests the similarity of the name of one of the
Massomack towns, Tonhoga, with Tongoria, Colden's name for the Eries;
and with TOUGUENHA, the name of that tribe of whom THE SENECAS TOLD
LA SALLE IN 1669, THAT THEY LIVED ON THE OHIO RIVER, and of whom GALLINEE
STATES THAT THEY SPOKE A CORRUPT ALGONQUIN, MEANING, PROBABLY, THE
TRIBE OF THE SHAWNEES. The Skauneiawa town of the Massomacks^
Gatschet identifies with Sonnoniouan, or Senecaa. Gatschet thought
the seven days' journey of Edward Fleet and his Indian guides was
toward the country of the Massomacks. This is rather doubtful.
[Hanna was wrong there. 7 days from Great Falls up the Potomac River was
Shawnee Oldtown, Maryland, but not to Kittianing.]
........

"MOSTICUM" - Muskingum [shawnee "mos-ke-quie"="large ponds, or small lakes"]

"USSERAHAK" - 7,000 inhabitants; Charlestown, W. Va.- Marietta?

"SHAUNETOWA" - could mean either "Shawnee Prarie" or "Shawnee Town" - either Portsmouth,
Circleville, or The Scioto [shawnee "scioto"="pretty"] River Prarie

....
There is, in the Relation of the Abbe Galinee (1669-70), as given by
Margry, another statement that refers to the Shawnees, and indicates
the locality of a part of the tribe at that time. Speaking of the com-
mencement of La Salle's journey to the southwest, and the reason for
it, Galinee writes:

"Our fleet consisted of seven canoes, each with three men,
which departed from Montreal the sixth day of July, 1669, under
the guidance of two canoes of Iroquois Sonnontoueronons (Senecas), who
had come to Montreal in the autumn of the year 1668 to do their hunting
and trading.

These people, while here, had stayed quite a long time at M. de la Salle's,
and had told him so many marvels of the Ohio River,
with which they said they were thoroughly acquainted, that they inflamed
in him more than ever the desire to go to see it. They told him that
this river took its rise three days' journey from Sonnontouan
[Seneca - this start was most likely on the Aleghenny River], and that
after a month's travel one came upon the Honniasontkeronons [Hanna suggests that these are Piedmont Siouxian, v2p120; Lenape?] and the CHIOUANONS, and, that after having passed the latter, and a great cataract or water-fall that there is in this river [Falls of the Ohio - later Louisville?], one found the Outagame [Wea] and the country of the Iskousogos [Ch'Iskousogos = Chicago's? of the Illinois River - Known to Illini as the "Piase" after their national symbol, the Misi Piase. It appears the Five Nations traveled by canoe to Lake Michigan, and proceeded south from it southern point via the "Chicago" to the Chicagos, and also via the Iroquois River to the Wea.].

In his Migration Legend of the Creek Indians, Gatschet describes two of these
[Shawneee] towns among the Creeks under the name of Sawokli and Sawanogi (pp. 142-43).
Usually people believe what they want to believe until reality intrudes.
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E.P. Grondine
 
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