That's a very interesting question. You might get some ideas from this.http://www.archaeological.org/fieldwork/preparing
Of course things are changing rapidly in the field. The use of satellite imagery and ground penetrating radar takes a great deal of the guesswork about choosing a spot.
Something is wrong here. War, disease, death, destruction, hunger, filth, poverty, torture, crime, corruption, and the Ice Capades. Something is definitely wrong. This is not good work. If this is the best God can do, I am not impressed.
-- George Carlin