The Walls of Jericho

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The Walls of Jericho

Postby Minimalist » Fri Jul 10, 2009 9:23 am

On another board I found a site which sums up a lot of the archaeological research relating to the Jericho issue and received approval from the author to post a link.

The heart of the dispute involves one J. P. Holding, a noted biblical apologist and archaeologist Bryant Wood on one side and the Kathleen Kenyon, C14-backed dates for the destruction on the other. This is pretty good detective work.

"The conquest of Jericho in Joshua 2 and 6 is not only one of the best known and most loved stories of the Old Testament, it is also central to the whole argument about the reliability and accuracy of the account of the exodus from Egypt and the conquest of Canaan." So wrote Walter C. Kaiser, Jr., Colman M. Mockler Distinguished Professor of Old Testament and president of Gordon-Conwell Theological Seminary in South Hamilton, Massachusetts. [1] According to Dr. Kaiser (and I must agree with him), if the conquest of Jericho did not happen as described in the Bible, the historical reliability and accuracy of the account of the exodus from Egypt and the conquest of Canaan could be called into question.
Something is wrong here. War, disease, death, destruction, hunger, filth, poverty, torture, crime, corruption, and the Ice Capades. Something is definitely wrong. This is not good work. If this is the best God can do, I am not impressed.

-- George Carlin
Posts: 15426
Joined: Mon Sep 26, 2005 1:09 pm
Location: Arizona

Re: The Walls of Jericho

Postby E.P. Grondine » Fri Jul 10, 2009 8:15 pm

The absolute date for the end of Late Minoan 1B can be determined by impact:

On the Joshua impact event

The destruction levels at several sites ca. 1585 BCE have been known for a long time; this is more a nationalistic problem than a religious one.

Exodus may be dated to 1628 BCE, by the use of tree rings from Thera and the mentions of Comet Encke's appearance.

See also Manfred Bietak on Tell el D'aba chronology, in particular his comments on Cypriot yellow ware, if memory serves, which it sometimes doesn't now a days.

See also Carol A. Redmont's studies

Johannes Lehmann
The Hittites
People of a thousand gods
Viking Press, 1977

Lehmann gets Greek identifications from
Fredrich Cornelius
Geschichte der Hethiter
mit besonder Berucksichtung der geographischen Verhaltnisse
und Rechtesgeschishte
M. Riemschneider
Der Welt der Hethiter

Gary Beckman
Hittite Diplomatic Texts
Society of Biblical Literature

Michael C. Astour
Hittite History
and Absolute Chronology of the Bronze Age
Paul Astroms forlag
Partille 1989

Astour points out that all Hittite and Luwain names in
nda, nza have parallel forms without
(Astour, page 32,33)

Amenemhat, Egyptian astronomer and clockmaker has left autobiography
presumed contemporary of Thutmose I
Astour, JNES 31, 1972, pages 102-109
Wilheim, Acta Antiqua 26, 1976, pages 149-161
(Astour, page 44)

Notes on Thutmose I
Astour pages 15-16

Astour places Ishuwa between Taurus, Euphrates, and Arsanias
(Astour, pages 52 - 53)

Astour places homeland of Kaskans as
Kashkan Mountains near Kurushtama in Northeast Anatolia
Kurushtama ally with Kaskans for a raid on a Hatti city
Kaskans are mercenaries
Amenhotep III asks King Tarhundaradu of Arzawa to send him Kaskans
as Hatti has "went to pieces"
(Astour, page 65)

There was an ancient treaty by which
A King of Hatti shipped some people from Kurushtama, a part of Hatti,
to Egypt and "Turned them into Egyptians"
Astour ascribes it to Tudhaliya I
(Astour, pages 64 - 66)

[tar/hunta = taur (bull) = tyr/ant]

1) Pithana
son Anita, king of Khussara, conquers
2)Hattusa - land of Hatti or Chatti
(Lehmann, page 184)
Ch't torah
Cheta'las Egyptian
ch should have value as Scottish Loch
(Lehmann, page 21)

[Kittim or Chittim = Linear B ki-ti - e.p.g.]

3) Salatiwara

4) Burushanda

5) Grandfather of Hattusili I
(Astour page 12)

6) Tabarna or Labarna
(Lehmann, page 191)

Labarna conquers Arzawa and Wilusa (Ilios)
Wilusa later manages to gain independence
(Beckman, page 82)

[This must be an effect of the EARTHQUAKE on Thera - e.p.g.]

7) Papahdilmak
Challenges Labarna for throne
(Astour page 12)

8) Hatusili I (Hattushilish) 1639-1604 by middle chronology

Thera explosion 1628 by ice cores and dendro-chronology

(? Hatusili I deposes Labarna
deposes Huzziya (=Hassu above), king of Tapassanda
civil war
(Lehmann, pages 192-193)

attacks Arzawa in 3rd year
(Hatusili I's Res Gestae, Astour, page 23)
[This must be because of EXPLOSION of Thera - e.p.g.]

Hattusili I faces revolt
conquers Allepo (Halib)
crosses Pura river, conquers Hassu,
which Sargon of Akkad was unable to do 700 years earlier
(Lehmann, pages 190-192)

Hammurapi II of Yahmad (Aleppo) sends forces to help Hashshu
stops Hatusili I
Hatusili I attacks Urshu
Aleppo, Zarzuar, Carchemish, Hurrians, send forces
Hatusili I transfers cities of Aleppo
and Nuhashshe (to the south-east of Aleppo)
to Ashtata on the Euphrates
Aleppo joins Hanigalbat
Aleppo regains territories
Aleppo revolts from Hanigalbat
(Astour, pages 16-17)

Nuhashshe = Nugasa (Egpt) = Ngt (Ug)
(Astour, page 113)

Hanigalbat=Hurri=Mitani=Naharina emerges
(Astour's identifications, page 14)

Hatusili I fights them at Ilansura on Tigris River
(Astour, page 14)

Hattusili I destroys
Alalakh (Acana)
Hashshu (Tilmen Huyuk)
Ebla (Tell Mardikh)
Ikakalish-Ikanal (near Taurus)
(Tell Tuqan)
Urshu (Gaziantep)
(Habuba Kabira on Euphrates)
(Astour, page 89)

9) Mursili I (Murshilish) 1604-1594 by Middle Chronology

(= greek Myrsilios)

(Mursili II deafened by impact event explosion?
- must be reason he took name of Mursili I, deafened by Thera explosion
(Lehmann, page 230)
[Have these two plague accounts been conflated accidentally? - e.p.g.]

(Mursili II explicitly models himself after Mursili I - Astour page 13)

deafened by explosion as youth - Thera explosion
" the weather god thundered terribly from afar.
And the word in my mouth became small"
20 years of plague
(after effect of Thera explosion)
(Lehmann, page 230)

marches on Aleppo, to avenge his father's death
(Lehmann, pages 197-198)

destroys Aleppo
(Beckman, page 89)

1596 Mursili I conquers Aleppo
(Astour, page 92, date adjusted)

1595 Mursili I marches to Babylon
(Astour pages 13-14, dates adjusted)

attacked by Hurrians on way home
(Lehmann, pages 198-199)

defeated by Hurrians
(Astour, page 14)

Hurrians (=Horites)
have already come from Lake Van to Northern Euphrates
(old homeland of Jamnites, tribe of Benjamin - Weippert)
from India originally
(Lehmann, page 214)

Enters into treaty with Hapiru
(Astour, page 13)
[1st appearance of Hebrews,
probably attack on Rephidim - e.p.g.]

Mursili I assassinated by Hantili and Zidanta -

10) Hantili I (Hantilish) 1594-1564 by middle chronology

Murders Mursili I
Attacks Hurri to "Ashtata on right bank of Euphrates"
Defeated by Hurri
Loses queen and heirs to Hurri,
who take them to Shugziya and have locals kill them
(Edict of Telepinu, Astour, page 16, page 22, page 87)

According to the fragmentary tablet KBo III 46:
someone dies in Shugziya
after the death of 3 Hittite commanders
an unnammed Hittite king assembles
3000 Hapiru men
and garrisons them in a (name lost) city
(Astour, page 87, identifies this as Hantili I)

Campaigns in Syria
Hurrians attack him
Aleppo frees itself
attacked in north by GasGans (= Linear B ke-ke)
(Lehmann, page 200)

[T'e-Hantilish, king of Zippasla = Tantalus, king of Sipylus

In the 2nd year of his reign
Thutmose I undertook a campaign in Mitanni
reached bank of Euphrates, erected a victory stele there
(Astour, page 15)

1588 Thutmose I in northern Syria,
Ilim-ilimna I's ascent to kingship of Aleppo
1581 Ilim-ilimna dies; Idrimi flees to Amiya
(Astour, page 92, dates adjusted)

Campaign also possibly attributed to Amenhotep I
in dismantled monumental gate at Karnak
(Astour, page 88)

lives long life and dies natural death
(Astour, page 22)

11) Zidanta (Zidantash) 1564-1554 by middle chronology

Married to Hantili's daughter
(Edict of Telepinu, Astour, page 92)

kills Hantili's family, (then Hantili?)

Idrimi, son of Ilim-ilimna, goes to Hapiru
retakes control of Alakah, new capital, rules Aleppo
pledges loyalty to Parattarna of Hurri
raids Hatti cities of Uluzila and Zaruna in Cilicia
(Astour, pages 19-20)

1574 Idrimi returns to Alakah
1567 Idrimi submits to Parattarna, king of Hurri
1564-1554 Idrimi enters into a treaty with Pillaya,
1st king of Kizzuwadna
(Astour, page 92, dates adjusted)

Idrimi enters into treaty with Pillaya king of Kizzuwadna
Zidanzash also enters into treaty with Pillaya king of Kizzuwadna
(Astour, page 21)

Treaty with Pilliya of Kizzuwatna is ascribed
to Zidanzash by Astour, not Beckman

Treaty mentions earlier wars between Kizzuwadna and Hatti

Hyksos called heka-khasut "rulers of foreign lands" by Egyptians
(Lehmann, page 213)

[ If khasut = Kizzuwadna,
This is the first appearance of the Hyksos
Most likely this is the same as Old Testament Kahoth - e.p.g.]

Formerly called Adaniya, integral part of Hatti
in Cilicia
(Beckman, page 11)

Kizzuwadna partitioned from Adaniya
Kizzuwadna called Cataonia is Greek/Roman times
(Astour, page 38)

Kizzuwadna was eastern Cilicia
At the time of conquest called Kumanni
Pillaya or Palliya establishes rite at
seven springs of Lawazantiya
(Astour, pages 101-102)

Qode - Qadi(Egy) - Qty (Ug) - Ketai, Ketis of rugged Cilicia (class.)
is adjacent to but not to be confused with Kizzuwadna
(Astour, page 93)

12) Ammuna
kills his father Zidanta
attacks Adaniya
(Astour, page 22)

1544 Idrimi dies
(Astour, page 92, date adjusted)

13) Huzziya
kills rivals for throne
tries to kill Telpinu but fails
Telepinu deposes him
(Edict of Telepinu, Astour, page 24)

14) Telepinu
deposes Huzziya
begins campaign against Hashshuwa

15) Tahurwaili(sh)
kills Tittish and his sons
seizes throne from Telepinu
enters into treaty with Eheya king of Kizzuwadna
(Astour, pages 23-25)

Beckman places Tahurwaili after Telepinu erroneously

14) Telepinu puts down revolt by Tahurwaili
Battle at Zazzilipa, Astour thinks might be in Kizzuwadna
Battle at Lawazantiya
Ruler Lahhash flees to Larisha
Telepinu returns to Hatti
Tahurwaili and others flee to Hanhana in north
(Edict of Telepinu, Astour, pages 25-26)

Thutmose III launches campaign:
1472 Reaches Euphrates and receives gifts from
Assyria, Babylonia, Hittites
1471 Takes cities in Nuhashshe
1470 Offensive stopped in its tracks
1467 Battles Nuhashshe and recieves tribute from Alakah
(all dates Astour, page 29, Egyptian dates?)

Babylonia = Sangara (Eg) = Sanhara Sa-an-ha-ar (Hit, Mit Alashiote)
(Astour, page 120)

Later letter of Burnaburiash, king of Sangara (Babylonia)
Princes of Canaan attempted a rebellion against Egypt
Princes try to obtain help of Kurigalzu, king of Sanagara (Babylonia)
Kurigalzu refuses out of loyalty to Egypt
(Astour, pages 120-121)

Telepinu institutes reforms
sets up laws of succession
gives power to pankus=court of nobles,
(Lehmann, pages 208-209)
[= L.B. pa-ko, type also known at Troy from Iliad - e.p.g.]

pankus tries and executes Lahhash
sentences Tahurwailish and others to death
but Telepinu blinds them and "puts them in yoke"
(Edict of Telepinu, Astour, page 26)

concludes treaty with Isputahsu of Kizzuwadna
(Lehmann, page 212)

Telepinu's grandson, Tudhalyia I claims that in time of Telepinu:
Kizzuwatna was part of Hatti,
then defected to Hurri
Tudhaliya I's contemporary, the King of Hurri,
claims the same for the Isuwa:
"The populations of these cities had previously,
in the time of my grandfather,
come to the land of Hurri
and settled there.
And indeed afterwards
they went as fugitives to the land of Hatti.
Now, finally, the cattle have chosen their stable.
They have definitely come to my land."
(Treaty of Tudhalyia II with Sunashshura of Kizzuwatna
Beckman, page 14-15)
(should be Tudhaliya I, see Astour Pages 109-110))

16) Alluwamna
son in law of Telepinu
(Astour, page 96)

17) Tudhalyia I (Tudhaliyash)
concludes treaty with Sunashshura king of Kizzuwatna
with historical preamble:
in the time of his grandfather [Telepinu],
Kizzuwatna was part of Hatti
then defected to Hurri
Tudhaliya attacks Isuwa
[Isuwa = Asia = Israel e.p.g.]
Isuwa flee to Hurri
Hurri (Horite) king claims that
Isuwa settled in his land in the time of his grandfather
"The populations of these cities had previously,
in the time of my grandfather,
come to the land of Hurri
and settled here."
Hurri then attack Isuwa
Tudhaliya engaged with another enemy elsewhere
(presumably Arzawa, Beckman(?), page 20)
Tudhaliya attacked Arzawa
(Beckman, page 82)
Hurri making claims against Kizzuwatna
Kizzuwatna returns to ally with Hatti
(Treaty of Tudhalyia II (should be Tudhaliya I)
with Sunashshura of Kizzuwatna, Beckman, page 14)

Tudhaliya I attacks Isuwa
(Astour, pages 52-52, page 110 citing
Houwink Ten Cate
The records of the Early Hittite Empire, Ankara
Horst Klengel
Die Hethiter Und Isuwa
OA 7, 1967, pages 63-76
Nochmals zu Isuwa
OA 15, 1976, pages 85-89)

Isuwa joined by Shaushatar, king of Mitanni
in battle against Tudhaliya I
Tudhalyia I conquers Kizzuwadna city of Kummani
removes "idol of the Black Deity" to Shamuha on upper Euphrates
on his way to Mitanni/Isuwa
(Astour, page 56)

18) Arnuwanda I (Arnuwandash)
(Astour - Beckman places after Tudhalyia II)

Amenhotep III marries Giluhipa, daughter of
Shuttarna II king of Mitanni
in the tenth year of his reign
(Astour, page 112)

Arnuwanda I son of Tudhaliya I
co-regent with him
(Astour, page 51)

Arzawans have arisen
GasGans have conqwered many cities
(Lehmann, page 215)

Kizzuwadna conquered by Mitanni
Sunashshura king of Kizzuwadna and Mitanni vassal
concludes treaty with Arnuwanda I
(Astour, pages 54-55)

Arnuwanda I places 25 trusted noblemen each with 150 soldiers
in charge of cities of Kizzuwadna
(Astour, page 68)

19) Hantili II (Beckman, seen as co-regent with Arnuwandash by Astour)
equality treaty with Paddatissu of Kizzuwadna
(Lehmann, page 213, treaty, Beckman, page 11)

20) Zidanta II (Beckman, seen as co-regent with Arnuwandash by Astour)
treaty with Pilliya of Kizzuwatna is ascribed to him
by Beckman, page 11, not Astour, pages 37-38

21) Huzziya II (Beckman, seen as co-regent with Arnuwandash by Astour)
Kizzuwadna concedes land to him
(Lehmann, page 213)

22) Muwattalli
Akkadian NIR.GAL = Mutalla
(Astour, page 35)

Kills Huzziya II
(Astour, page 33)

Killed by son of Tudhaliya I
(Astour, page 33)

Muwatalli killed by Kantuzillish, son of Tudhaliya I,
and Himulish, chief of frontier troops
Himulish joined by a Hatusili, not Hatusili II
(Astour, page 33, pages 46-47)

23) Arnuwanda II (Arnuwandash)
(placed here by Beckman, not Astour)

24) Tudhaliya II (placed after Arnuwanda by Astour)
Treaty with Sunashshura of Kizzuwatna ascribed to him by Beckman,
but this must be with Tudhaliya I, as Astour rightly states
(Beckman, page 14)

Aleppo joins with Mitanni, withdraws from Hatti
Tudhaliya destroys them both
(Treaty of Talmi-Sharruma, Astour, page 39, page 42)

Attacks Aleppo and Hanigalbat
Ashtata and Nuhashshi want cities of Aleppo
Mitanni and Hatti recognize their claim
(Beckman, page 89)

Ishuwa and 15 other states all around Hatti rebel
Hattushash itself is burnt down
Amenhotep III writes that
"I have heard that everything is finished
and the land of Hattushash, too,
has gone to pieces."
(Astour, page 70)

Sippiluliuma claims that
in the time of his father (Tudhalyia II)
Isuwa became hostile
troops of Hatii entered the land of Isuwa, which is composed of:

troops of the city of Kurtalissa (Tirzah Joshua 12:24)
(Telem Joshua 15:24)
(Kartah Joshua 21:34)
troops of the city of Arawanna (Arnon Numbers 21:26)
(Argob of Og king of Bashan
Deuteronomy 3:3?)
(Aroer Deuteronomy 2:36)
the land of Zazisa (Zamzummims
(Ziph Joshua 15:24)
(Zephath, also called Hormah
Judges 1:17)
the land of Kalasma
the land of Timana (Timnath-sera Joshua 19:50)
(Timnath-heres Judges 2:9)
Mount Haliwa (Elealeh Numbers 32:3)
(Mount Halak Joshua 11:17)
Mount Karna (Kadesh Barnea Numbers 32:8)
troops of the city of Turmitta (Midian Numbers 31:2)
the land of Alha (Ar Numbers 21:15)
(Argob of Og king of Bashan
Deuteronomy 3:3?)
the land of Hurmia (Hormah Numbers 14:45)
Mount Harana (Mount Hor Numbers 20:22)
(Beth Haran Numbers 32:36, with folds for sheep)
(Mount Hermon Deuteronomy 3:9)
half of the land of Tegarama (Paran Numbers 12:16)
troops of the city of Tepuriya (Taberah Numbers 11:3)
(Tapuah Joshua 12:17)
(Tappuah Joshua 15:34)
troops of the city of Hazka (Hazeroth Numbers 11:35)
(Azekah Joshua 10:10)
(Azekah Joshua 15:35)
troops of the city of Armatana (Hamath Numbers 13:21)
(Jarmuth Joshua 12:11)

There is no mention that Tudhalyia II defeated the Isuwa
(Beckman, page 38)

25) Hatusili II (Beckman, does not exist for Astour)

25) Tudhaliya II (rightly here by Astour, not Beckman)

son of Arnuwanda
(Astour, page 51)

26) Tudhaliya III

murdered by supporters of Suppiluliuma
(Astour, page 50)

27) Suppiluliuma 1386-1347/1346
fights Gasgans for 20 years
attacks Hurrians,
Tushratta, king of Mitanni, defeats him
Tushratta sends part of spoils to Pharoah Amenophis III
(Lehmann, page 221)

Tarhundaradus, king of Arzawa -
Arzawa by then had made Tuwanuwa - Tyana, 100 miles to Hattusas's south
and Uda "his frontier",
initated diplomatic correspondence with Amenhotep III.
Tarhundaradus even dared request Pharaoh, in Kneshian, for his daughter's hand in marriage. Pharaoh's reply is missing;

Arzawa revolts
(Beckman, page 82)

Akhnaten year 12 attacks Amurru
(Astour, page 6)

Kizzuwadna defect from Hurrians, ally with Hittites
Kizzuwadna promise help against Arzawa
(Lehmann, pages 223-224)

Mahuiluwa flees Mira-Kuwaliya to Suppiluliuma
Suppiluliuma engaged elsewhere
(Beckman, page 69)

In his father's time Isuwa became hostile
Suppuliliuma destroyed the land of Isuwa
(Beckman, page 38)

I, Suppiluliuma, the Great King, immediately crossed the sea.
The ships of Alasiya met me in the sea three times for battle,
and I smote them; and I seized the ships and set the fire to them in the sea.
But when I arrived on dry land,
the enemies came from Alasiya in multitude against me for battle

frees Ugarit
(Beckman, page 30)

Suppululiuma attacks Mitanni, takes Carchemish and Aleppo
Suppululiuma takes lands of Nuhashshi
takes lands of Kinza (Canaan) and Amurru from Egypt
(Beckman, page 89)
establishes kingdom of Amurru
brings up Aziru from gates of Egypt
(Beckman, page 32)

Suppuliliuma attacks Egyptian tributary Amqa
(Astour, page 64)

Tushratta of Mitanni also wants a piece of coastal region
Suppuliliuma attacks Mitanni
captures Shutatarra, son of king of Hurrians
Shutatarra kills Tushratta
Shutatarra rebels
Suppililiuma defeats Hurrians
Suppuliliuma installs Shattiwaza as king of Mitanni
Suppuliliuma installs Piyassili on west bank of Eupahrates
(Beckman, page 38 et seq)

contemporary of Ankhesaenamum,
widow of Tutankhamun,
son of Amenophis IV, a.k.a. Akhenaten
who seeks son for alliance
son killed
(Lehmann, pages 13-16)

attacks Egypt in revenge,
prisoners of war bring plague
(Lehmann, page 235)

dies 1346 of plague (Annals of Mursili II)
(Lehmann, page 228)

28) Arnuwanda his son dies of plague 1347/1346 - 1345

29) Mursili II 1344-1316 BCE
in 10th year of his reign,
begins campaign against Hayasha
omen of the sun occurs
thought to be eclipse of March 13, 1335
Tawanna interprets as immenent destruction of royal house
Mursili II ignores and goes on to conquer Hayasha
(Astour, page 5)

= greek Myrsilios

[deafened by explosion as youth - impact event? - Murshilish I
or accidental conflation of two plague accounts? - e.p.g.]
" the weather god thunder terribly from afar.
And the word in my mouth became small"
20 years of plague
[after effect of impact event? - e.p.g.]

[These two plague accounts have probably been accidentally conflated
see Astour, page 64 - e.p.g.]

his father killed Tudhaliya III
(Lehmann, pages 230-231)

One of the causes of the plague the breaking of a treaty by
Suppuliliuma's invasion of the Egyptian Amqa
(Astour, page 64)

Manapa-Tarhunta (read tyrant) flees from his brother
Ura-Tarhunta (read tyrant), ruler of Seha river-Appiaya
Manapa-Tarhunta (tyrant) backs
Uhha-ziti, king of Arzawa, in revolt
Mursili II defeats Uhha-ziti of Arzawa
installs Manapa-Tarhuntaas (tyrant) ruler of Seha river-Appiaya
(Beckman, page 78-79)

Uhhazitis king of Arzawa rules from Apasus (Ephesus)
Uhhazitis - Looks like kidney stones; not struck by impact
Mursili II attacks Piyama-Kurundas, the son of Uhhazitis;
Uhhazitis flees to islands
Uhhazitis allies himself with the king of Ahhiuwa, who may reside in Miletus
Tapalazunaulis, son of Uhhazatis went up into Purandas
Mursili II takes city of Purandas
Piyama-Kurundas, the son of Uhhazitis comes out of the sea with the King of Ahhiyawa.
defeated by Mursili II in naval battle
next events as passage above
Mursili II goes to attack Manapa-Tarhunta (the tyrant), the son of Muwa-Walwis
Manapa-Tarhunta surrenders
"I appointed Mashuiluwas in lordship at Mira, and I spoke as follows to Mashuiluwas:
"You, Mashuiluwas, came as a refugee before my father, and my father accepted you,
and he made you a son-in-law. He gave you Muwattis his daughter, my sister, as your wife. Afterwards he did not stand with you, and over your enemies he did not smite.
I have stood beside you: I have smote your enemies.
Moreover I have built cities and fortified them;
I have occupied them with troops in garrison.
And I have established you as the lord of Mira."
Problems on all three sides: to the north the Gasgans, to the south Mitani,
to the west Achaeans
Apparently negotiates with the Egyptians in his 7th year, 1337 BCE
Nuhassi allies itself with Egypt (1337 BCE)
Egyptian army defeated
The Egyptian dates here should be
Amenhotep IV/Akhenaten 1353-1333 BCE
Nefertiti 1335-1333 BCE
Tutankhamen 1333-1323 BCE
(Annals of Mursili II)

installs Mashuiluwa as ruler of Mira and Kuwaliya
Mashuiluwa revolts, allies with Pitassa
installs Kupanta-Kurunta as ruler of Mira and Kuwaliya
(Beckman, page 69)

Kurunta is the son of Muwatalli
(Astour, page 36)

(DATE UNCERTAIN - but Beckman concluded that mention of Kurunta and Madduwatta's attack on him, together with mention of installation of Kurunta as King of Tarhunta place events in it later, under Hatusili III. Most likely it belongs here.)

Attarasiya (Atreus) of Ahiya (Achaeans)
chased Madduwatta from Madduwatta's land
[this is Linear B a2-a-ja - e.p.g.]
King's father (Mursili II) gave Madduwatta Zippasla (Sipylus)
King's father (Mursili II) offered Madduwatta Mount Hariyati,
closer to Hatti
Madduwatta refused
King's father (Mursili II) asked Madduwatta
to attack Kupanta-Kurunta (kore/te,attendant to the God (the king)+Prince)
ruler of Arzawa
King's father (Mursili II) also specifically enjoined Madduwatta
not to form alliance with Attarasiya
Madduwatta attacks Kupanta-Kurunta, ruler of Arzawa
Arzawa counterattacks, destroys Madduwatta's army
King's father (Mursili II) sends Piseni and Puskurunuwa,
attacks city of Sallawasi
King's father (Mursili II) regains Madduwatta's goods
Attarasiya plans attack on Madduwatta
King's father (Mursili II) dispatches
Kisnalpi to attack Attarasiya
One officer of Attarasiya killed
One officer of Hatti, Zidanzash, killed
Attarasiya returns to his own land

[Zidanzash appears in the sacrificial list E with two known sons of
Suppililuliumash, died 1346 BCE. Otten assigned the Indictment to the reign of
Arnuwandash I. Astour, page 32 It seems it must belong here - e.p.g.]


Dalawa (Classical Tlos?) attacks
Madduwatta asks
Kisnalpi to attack Hinduwa
while he attacks Dalawa
Madduwatta betrays Kisnalpi,
does not attack Dalawa,
but instead tells Dalawa about Kisnalpi's location
Kisnalpi and Partahulla killed by Dalawa
Madduwatta turns Dalawa away from Hatti and into his subjects
Madduwatta gives his daughter in marriage to Kupanta-Kurunta
Madduwatta takes all the land of Arzawa
(Beckman, page 144 et seq)

installs Targasnalli as ruler of Hapisala
(Beckman, page 64)

conquers Gasgan city of Asharpayain north,
which controls road to Pala
good relations with Ahhiyawa (Achaeans)
(Lehmann, page 232)

problems with Ahhiyawa prince Tawagalawas (Eteocles)
(Lehmann, page 233)

30) Muwatalli 1315-1282

moves capitol to Dattassa
Hattusili III sets up kingdom at Hakmis on northern border
Amurru in Syria/Lebanon defects to Egyptians
Hattusili III sends Gasgan mercenaries to Muwatalli
for fight with Ramses II at Kadesh 1285
(Lehmann, pages 236-241)

Madduwatta tells King (Muwatalli) that he will conquer Hapalla for him
Madduwatta takes all of Hapalla for himself
Madduwatta asked for passage
but then tried to attack Hittite army
Antahitta and Mazlawa, ruler of Kuwaliya witnessed this
Madduwatta takes from Hatti:
The land of Zumanti
the land of Wallarimma
the land of Iyalanti
the land of Zumarri
the land of Mutamutassa
the land of Attarima
the land of Suruta
the land of Hursanassa
the city of Upnihuwala
King (Muwatalli) brings army out of land of Salpi
attacks Madduwatta
Madduwatta enlists aid of city of Pitassa
Madduwatta tries to enlist aid of Kupanta-Kurunta of Arzawa
King (Muwatalli) sends staff bearer Zuwa
Madduwatta kills him
Madduwatta burns down city of Marasa
King (Muwatalli) sends staff bearer Mulliyara
Demands return of land of Hapalla
Madduwatta returns Hapalla, but keeps
the land of Iyalanti
the land of Zumarri
the land of Wallarimma
King (Muwatalli) dispatches staff bearer Mulliyara
Madduwatta claims control over Niwalla,
claiming he is retainer of Piseni
King (Muwatalli) asks
Madduwatta to stop raiding Alashiya (Cyprus)
with Attarasiya and the ruler of Piggaya (Phthia, Achilles home?)
Madduwatta claims that
he did not know that Alashiya was subject to Hatti
(Beckman, page 144 et seq)

Arzawa attacks Wilusa (Ilios) and Hatti
Alaksandru (Alexander - Paris) asks Muwatalli for help
(Beckman, page 83)

Stephanus of Byzantium records that
Paris and Helen encounter founder of Samylia in Caria
on their way to Troy, King Motylos, or Muwatalli (Muwatallish, Astour)
(Lehmann, page 233)

31) Urhi-Teshub 1281-1282 BCE
a concubines son who styles himself Mursili III
returns capitol to Hattusa
(Lehmann, page 242)

32) Hattusili III 1282-1251
deposes Urhi-Teshub, who flees to Egypt
concludes treaty with Ramses II
(Lehmann, page 242)
1283 Treaty with Ramses II concluded
(Astour, page 65)
treaty gives 3rd greatest weight to "gods of Kizzuwadna"
(Lehmann, page 245)
[Kizzuwadna = Hyksos e.p.g.]
Treaty -
Those fleeing to Egypt to be returned to Hatti (Urhi-Tessub)
Amuru recognized by Egypt as Hittite appenage - Benteshina King of Amuru

Adad-nirari asks him for
"good iron" from the city of Kizzuwatna
(Beckman, page 139)
["good iron" is most likely steel, possibly meteoritic steel - e.p.g.]

deposes Urhi-Teshub
installs Kurunta as king of Tarhuntassa
(Beckman, page 108)
[witnesses to this treaty
may indicate military defeat - e.p.g.]

pits Babylonians against Assyrians
(Lehmann, page 248)

33) Tudhaliya IV (1250-1220)

fights Ahhijawa
fights Arzawa
(Lehmann, page 249)

Assyria attacks Hanigalbat
Elhi-Sharrumma king of Isuwa
Halpa-ziti king of Aleppo
(Beckman, page 142)

King of Egypt,
King of Babylonia
King of Assyria, and
King of Ahhijawa (Achaeans) are his equals
Assyria at war with Hatti
(Beckman, page 101)

34) Arnuwanda 1219 BCE (Spurious?)
(Lehmann, page 295, not Astour nor Beckman)

35) Suppiluliama IV 1190 BCE
many desertions, requires loyalty oaths
(Lehmann, page 295)

Sea peoples conquer Hittites
Ramses III at Medinet Habu:
"The foreigners conspired together on their islands.
All of a sudden, the countries vanished and were dispersed in battle.
No country withstood the force of their arms.
Hatti, Kode (Kizzuwadna), Carchemish, Arzawa, and Alashiya (Cyprus) -
All were swiftly laid waste.
A camp was pitched at a place in Amurru (Northern Lebanon).
They destroyed its people, and its land was as if it had never been.
They drew near Egypt with fire going on before...
(Lehmann, pages 291-292)

Letter from Ugarit lists invaders and speaks of famine
(Lehmann, page 293)
Usually people believe what they want to believe until reality intrudes.
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Re: The Walls of Jericho

Postby Minimalist » Fri Jul 10, 2009 8:27 pm

Exodus may be dated to 1628 BCE, by the use of tree rings from Thera and the mentions of Comet Encke's appearance.

Even the nutty, Simcha Jacobovici, didn't try to claim Exodus was that early. He tried to shoehorn it into 1500 BC.

And it didn't happen then, either.
Something is wrong here. War, disease, death, destruction, hunger, filth, poverty, torture, crime, corruption, and the Ice Capades. Something is definitely wrong. This is not good work. If this is the best God can do, I am not impressed.

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Posts: 15426
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Re: The Walls of Jericho

Postby E.P. Grondine » Fri Jul 10, 2009 11:25 pm

Here ya go, Min - work notes for the never to be completed "Man and Impact in the Ancient Near East"

Old Testament chronology

"edge of sword" always mentioned in these sources;
this is a slash and thrust sword, not simply thrusting sword

Joshua 11:9 He houghed their horses, and burnt their chariots with fire

Need to go through this again for land of Dan -
Kizzuwadna partitioned from Adaniya
Gardiner on Kizzuwadna, page 135, 136

River Arnon = River Orontes

Bashan = Pishaisha, SW of Ugarit

children of Ammon = children of Amun Re, Egyptians
children of Amelek = children of Melquart, Amelkites

page 171 Debir=Dapur

Joshua 9:1 Hittite coalition formed:
Hittite, Amorite, Canaanite, Perizzite, Hivite, Jebusite
Hatti, Amurru,

Joshua 9:10 summary of Israelite military action to Ai

Joshua 9:17 "Hivites" (9:7) cities are Gibeon, Chepirah, Beeroth, Kir/jathjearim
made subservient "hewers of wood, drawers of water"

Joshua 10:3-4
Amorite Kings (Amurru vassels) attack Gibeon:
Adoni/Zedec King of Jerusalem
Hoham King of Hebron
Piram King of Jarmuth
Japhia King of Lachish
Debir (10:39 listed as city name) King of Eglon (10:36 listed as location of Lachish)

Gibeon appeals for help
Joshua attacks at Gibeon,
Amorites retreat towards Beth/Horon
cities Azekah, Makkedah

Joshua 10:11 Impact

takes Makkedah, Libnah, Lachisch, Hebron, Debir

pursuit continues through
Kadesh Barnea (pass at Barnea), Gaza, Goshen, Gibeon

Hittite coalition again at Joshua 11:3
Joshua 11
Jabin King of Hazor calls up
Jobab King of Madon
King of Shimron
King of Achshaph

Canaanite, Amorite, Hittite, Perizite, Jebusite
and Hivite under Hermon in the land of Mizpeh

Battle at Waters of Merom
Joshua 11:9 "He houghed their horses, and burnt their chariots with fire'

Joshua 11:18
Joshua made war "a long time"

Mountain refuges used Joshua 11:21

Joshua removes "anakims" - is this an Egyptian or Hittite title?

Division is highly detailed,
but note that this is a notional division,
as real conquest often in Judges 1

Joshua 21 - Kohathites (Levites) essentially recognized in ("given") all the prime cities
these folks are the "Hyksos"

Note that after this the rulers do not claim kingship, as that belongs to the Kohathites; instead they claim to be judges

Joshua 22 - Tribe of Mannasseh only half in Bashan; other half west of Jordan River
Force is sent to confront Manaasseh, Reuben and Gad for claims west of Jordan

Judges 1
real conquest set out
1:34 Amurru forces Dan into mountains

Judges 3:10
Chushanrishathalim King of "Mesopotamia" conquers Israel for 8 years; defeated;
Judges 3:8
1585 - 8 = 1577 BCE

Judges 3:11
40 years rest,
1577 - 40 = 1537 BCE

Eglon King of Moab joins with
Children of Ammon (read Amun Ra, Egyptians)
Children of Amalek (which deity is this? Melquart of Phonecia.)

lives 1568 -1514 BCE, Hateshput guardian, reigns 1546-1514 BCE
23rd year - 1545 BCE from birth, 1523 BCE from ascendency

1545 - 1537 = 8 years short

From Gardiner -
page 134 Annals of Thutmosis III,
allies of Prince of Kadesh include Hurrians and Kizzuwadna, H3rw and Kdw
page 127 receives gifts from King of Khatti (Hittites)]

page 150 Soldier Amenemhab Thutmosis III campaigns in land Tskh (Gardiner reads Tkhs)
in a town called Meriu or Mersu.

page 157 Tskh between Kadesh and Niy

architect Minmose states that Thutmosis III plunders 30 towns of Tskh, probably in
8th campaign of year 33. Thutmosis crosses Euphrates River, erects stela beside that of Thutmosis I, passed through Ni on way home

Gardiner observes Tskh near Kadesh; appears to be Isuwa

[From Parkinson, who blows it completely here:

Thutmose III warred in Palestine and Syria in most of his 22nd-42nd years (B.C. 1482-1462 or
1468-1448), beginning with victory at Megiddo and ten years later challenging the Mitanni kingdom across the Euphrates.17 Likely these campaigns commenced while Israel was subjected to Moab; no contact with Israel is recorded. [Israel was not allied with Egypt’s enemies: the Mitanni kingdom and its vassals in northern Canaan and Syria.]

17 If the Hittite king ‘Kheta the Great,’ who congratulated Thutmose after the Mitanni encounter, was Khantilish II, then “Cushan-rishathaim [Kushan the Very Wicked] king of Mesopotamia,” sixty or so years earlier, was likely the Hittite king Khuzziyash I. The palace intrigue ascribed to him in CAH3 v.II, Pt.1, p663, would certainly fit the Hebrew appellation. [Nevertheless, a Mitanni king would seem geographically more likely.]]

Judges 3:14
18 years conquest til Eglon King of Moab assasinated by Ehud
then battle with 10,000 Moab dead
1537 - 18 = 1519 BCE

Amenhotep II's campaign was probably in response to Ehud and Moab battle


Gardiner page 164 - Shemesh-Edom in Syria destroyed
(had been destroyed by Thutmose III as well)
on 25th day of the first month of summer
on 26th day of the first month of summer,
at a ford on the Orontes
Turns to face attack by Asiatics to his rear,
pursues them and slays their leader
returns - to the ford?
no account given for 14 days lost time
10th day of second month of summer,
turns back towards Egypt
King in chariot visits town of Niy,
where inhabitants are manning the walls,
and who supplicate him for peace.
"Now His majesty had heard of some Asiatics
who were in the town of Ikt
were striving to eject the troops of His Majesty.
"His Majesty drew nigh to Ikrt (Ugarit).
A. surrounds those who defied him and annihilated them.
A. spent the night peacefully in his tent in Tzrkh (Tzalkhi).

place names not understood
then Alalak, then Kadesh

Gardiner page 151 Amada Stela of year 3 (1520 BCE) Amenhotep II (Amenophis II)
smote 7 princes in the region of Tskh (Isuwa?) and brought them hanging head downward at the prow of his ship, later suspending 6 from the walls of Thebes, while the seventh was suspended from the wall of Napatha

Gardiner page 184 Great Memphis Stela - second campaign
prisoners listed as
Prince of Retjnu (Syria) 144
Brothers of Princes 179
'Apiru 3600
Living (Nkh) Bedouin 15020 for Nkh,
Khorians (Hurrians) 36300
Living Nugasians 15070

Gardiner page 127 Great Memphis Stela - second campaign(?)
After his victories in Syria; Hatti(Hittites), Naharina (Mitani), and Sangar (Babylon)
seek to establish diplomatic realtions

Judges 3:30
"fourscore" (good translation?) "years of rest",
which may simply be a way of accounting for a complete defeat of the Israelites by the Egyptians and the ensuing lack of records, see Judges 5:6,7
After 1519 - 80 = 1439 BCE


Aitugumu of Kadesh reports that Namiazawa, governor of Ir
had surrendered all towns in Tskh (Isuwa?) and Ir to hapiru
but he had recovered them

Judges 3:31
attack on Philistines

Gardiner, page 189, on rebellion by Kings of city of Sumur in Amor
Abdi-Ashirta and Aziru
Ugarit and Tzalkhi sources of structural wood beams, needed for temples
Aziru in Amor does not allow loading (page 157)
Aziru first loyal to Egypt, Akhenaten ignores
Aziru enters into treaty with Shupiluliumash I; takes Tunip
taken prisoner, held in Egypt
returned to throne

Sherden mercenaries are stationed by Egyptians at Byblos; Gardiner, page 194

Judges 4
Jabin King of Canaan rules from city of Hazor
Sisera of Harosheth commands Canaanite army
Judges 4:3 20 years of attacks

After 1439 - 20 = 1419 BCE
then massed Israelite infantry against chariots which Drews mentioned,
Deborah and Barak, near Megiddo

Judges 5:14 has distribution of peoples and alliances, note

Out of Ephraim there was a root of them against Amelek (Melquart)
Out of Machir came down governors
Out of Zebulun they that handle the pen of the writer
And the princes of Issachar were with Deborah, even is Issachar,
and also Barak: he was sent on foot into the valley

Reuben stays with the sheep
Gilead beyond Jordan
Dan remained in its ships
Asher in its coastal city

Zebulon and
Napthali fight

Judges 5:20 "They fought from heaven; the stars in their courses fought against Sisera"

Judges 6
Midianites (Mitanni) and "children of Amalek"
devastate Israel back to "cave age" for 7 years
Judges 6:1 After 1419 - 7 = 1412 BCE

Mitanni princes given as Oreb and Zeeb
defeated by Gideon, who takes control from Ephraim tribe

Judges 8:5
Mitanni kings given as Zebah ("Zeeb" related) and Zalmuna
120,00 Mitanni already slain; 15,000 left

Judges 8:28
40 years quiet
1412 - 40 = 1372 BCE

Judges 9:22
Israelites greatly reduced
Abimelech reigns 3 years
1372 - 3 = 1369 BCE

Judges 10:2
Tola rules 23 years
1369 - 23 = 1346 BCE
(1346 BCE plague outbreak?)

Judges 10:3
Jair rules 22 years
1346 - 22 = 1324 BCE

Judges 10:8
Phiistines and Egyptians assume sovreignity,
and rule for 18 years
1324 - 18 = 1306 BCE

...Sherden rebellious of heart...
...battleships in the midst of the sea...

"he defeated warriors of the Great Green,
and Lower Egypt sleeps (peacefully)" Gardiner, page 195

1306 BCE - 1285 BCE = 21 years at this point

Ramses II versus Muwatalish

Ramses II lands forces in Amurru (Amor)
prepared his army, his chariots, and his Sherden whom His Majesty had captured
(Gardiner page 194) probably garrison at Byblos

Luxor scene shows Ramses II (1290-1223 BCE) taking
a town in the land of Kdy (Kizzuwadna) AND the territory of Naharin (Gardiner, 136)
may be apocryphal

Judges 10:17
Philistines and "Children of Ammon" (Egyptians) attack:
Israel east of Jordan River?
Egyptians cross Jordan - Gilead identified as located in Amurru

Jeph-thath of land of Tob asked to lead attack
negotiates with Egyptians

Judges 11:26
Jeph-thath of land of Tob states that
Israel went around Edom
went around Moab
asked for passage from Sihon King of Amorites (Amurru)
Sihon refused, conquered
Israel has dwelt there some 300 years since

This should put this around 1585-300 = 1285 BCE
This looks like pedecessor to Battle of Kadesh -
Amurru defects from Hittites to Egyptians

Judges 12:7
Jeph-thath rules 6 years
1285 - 6 = 1279 BCE


Hattusili III deposes Urhi-Teshub, who flees to Egypt
concludes treaty with Ramses II

In letter Hittite King proposes to Kizzuwadna (Kdy) King
that they go pay homage to Ramses II (Gardiner, page 135)

1283 BCE Treaty with Ramses II concluded (Astour, page 65)
treaty gives 3rd greatest weight to "gods of Kizzuwadna"

Judges 12:8
- Ibzan of Beth lehem forms multiple diplomatic alliances through marriage
this should be about the time of peace treaty between
Hattusili III - Ramses II (1290-1223 MIDDLE, with Battle of Kadesh at 1285)
rules 7 years

Judges 12:10
Elon of Zebulim rules 10 years

Judges 12:13
Abdon rules 8 years

6+7+10+8 = 31 years
1285 - 31 = 1254 BCE MIDDLE

Judges 13:1
Philistines conquer for 40 years
1254 - 40 = 1214 BCE MIDDLE,
in other words until Menerptah's attack on Canaan, Israel, Hurri

Hymn of Victory stela (page 20, page 50):
Merneptah 5th year, 1218 BCE MIDDLE, 1207 BCE LOW
Merneptah defeats
cities: Ashkelon, Gezer, Yenoam, and
and peoples: Canaan, ISRAEL, Hurru
(identified as Menerptah by Yurco, but possibly this is Ramses II, as cartouches recarved later, ibid citing Yurco)
(my guess is that this probably proceeds Libyan attack - agree with Drews, page 20 -
the later attackers are trading partners)


Judges 13
then Samson arises from the tribe of Dan
Judges 14:19
Samson attacks Ashkelon
Judges 15:8
continues attacks on Philistines
Philistines counter attack Judah
Judah attacks Samson of tribe of Dan

Judges 15:20
Samson judges Israel "in the days of the Philistines" for 20 years
this must be either
1214 - 20 = 1194 BCE
OR from 1234 to 1214 BCE

Judges 16:1
Samson attacks Gaza
Samson taken prisoner by Philistines

Judges 16:30
Possible earthquake kills Philistines

Judges 17
leadership fairly well non-existent
Micah leader of tribe of Judah

Judges 18
"children of Dan" -
"all of their inheritance had not fallen to them among the tribes of Israel"

This appears to be Kizzuwadna (egyptian kst), partitioned from a-DAN-iya

coastal cities of Zorah, Eshtaol
negotiate with Micah leader of the tribe of Judah
subjugate Micah
conquer city of Laish, rename it "Dan"

Judges 20
All the tribes of Israel reorganize
strike at Gibeah under Benjamin,
which allows northern group (Mount Ephrai) and southern group (Bethlehem/Judah) to unite
400,000 men versus 26,700; Benjamin has 700 left handed slingers
also attack Jabesh in Gilead
camp at Shiloh

a great FAMINE
spurious genealogy established for David of Moab

Hymn of Victory Stela:
Merneptah vs. Meryev, son of Ded:
Shekelesh (Sicilians),
Sherden (Sardinians)
Tursha (identified as Italian/Etruscan here, but perhaps from Spain),
Ekwesh (Achaeans), (this identification seems doubtful to me)
Luka (Lycians)

FAMINE stated as cause of invasion: great Karnak inscription, Gardiner page 121

I Samuel 4
Philistines attack,
kill 4,000 + 30,000 = 34,000 footmen
given 400,000 number above, this must be just for city of Shiloh

I Samuel 4:18
Philistines capture ark
Eli dies after defeat, had ruled 40 years.
assuming Israel "liberated" by Menerptah in 1218 BCE,
1218 - 40 = 1178 BCE,


Ramses III 8th year, 1179 BCE LOW, 1190 BCE MIDDLE:
Peleset (Philistines),
Theker (Tjekker, city of Dor in, south of Mt Carmel, north of Philistines by Drews)
(NW africa coastal people, fair skinned, Gardiner)
Denyen (read as "Danaans", used of Greeks generally in Iliad,
but most likely "children of Dan", north of Theker,
Danuna people mentioned by Abimilki of Tyre, Gardiner page 125)
Shekelesh (Sicilians)
another stelae Deir el Medineh - includes
Tursha (Etruscans, or spanish)

Line of March:
Hatti, Kode, Carcamesh, Yereth, Yeres
and finally Amor, where they camp
Gardine page 189 "the vile Prince of Amor"
other translators give:
Hatti, Kode (Kizzuwadna), Carchemish, Arzawa, and Alashiya (Cyprus) -

I Samuel 5
also outbreak of mice - I Samuel 6
Philistines surrender ark after 7 months

I Samuel 6:17-18
Philistine city states set out as Ashdod, Gaza, Askelon, Gath, Ekron

Joshua the Beth Shemite slays 50,070 men
(source of later confusion with earlier Joshua)

I Samuel 7:2
ark goes to Kir/jathjearim
where it remains for 20 years
1179 BCE - 20 = 1159 BCE
Samuel rises, defeats Philistines

I Samuel 7:10
"but the lord that day thundered with a great thunder upon the Philistines, and discomfited them"
Philistines surrender Ekron and Gath, keep Ashdod, Gaza, Askelon;
Amurru settles with Israel

I Samuel 8
Terms of kingship set out

I Samuel 9
Saul of the tribe of Benjamin presents himself to Samuel

I Samuel 11:1
Nahash the king of the children of Ammon (Egyptian) demands submission of Jabesh in Gilead
(Is this a throne name?)
Israel at 300,000 man strength, with Judah at 30,000 men
Ammonites (Egyptians) defeated
Saul declared king

I Samuel 13
attack on Philistines in 2cd year of Samuel's riegn
Philistines 30,000 chariots, 6,000 horsemen, infantry
Samuel and Saul split
Eli's kin from Shiloh among Saul's allies
Jonathan from Gibeah also in contention for leadership
Philistines defeated

I Samuel 15
Saul attacks Amelkites (Phonecians)
Split between Samuel and Saul
Samuel had ordered complete genocide; Saul refused
Samuel seeks alliance with David of Bethlehem
Saul co-opts David

David attacks Philistines
Saul attempts to kill him
David flees to Samuel
then to about every surrounding people

I Samuel 26:6
David with Ahimelech the Hittite
(an obvious mistake, as Hittites no longer exist, except as minor north syrian people)
(need to do search on name - priest with this name shows up later)

I Samuel 27
David seeks refuge with Philistines of Gath
(Gath supposedly had been captured earlier, above)
27:8 David attacks Geshurites, Gezrites, Amelkites

Philistines go inland to attack Judah
Philistines send David home
Amelkites (Phoniciens) attack Judah and Philistines along coast
took David's city

I Samuel 30
list of areas of Israel

I Samuel 31
Philistines attack, Saul and household killed, occupy land

II Samuel
David moves to Hebron in Judah, proclaims himself King of Israel
Abner installs Saul's son Ishbosheth as King over Gilead, Ashur, Jezreel, Ephraim, Benjamin
2:10 Ishbosheth 40 years old, reigns 2 years
civil war, David wins, Abner tries to surrender, murdered
Ishbosheth assassinated

II Samuel 5:4-5
David 30 years old when he begins rule,
rules 40 years
rules over Hebron in Judah 7 years 6 months
rules over Israel and Judah 33 years

II Samuel 5:11
Hiram of Tyre sends messengers and cedars to David

II Samuel 5:17
Philistines attack

David attacks Jerusalem
retrieves ark, starts temple

David attacks Moab
David attacks Zobah on Euphrates River
Syrians of Damascus attack, defeated; David takes Damascus

II Samuel 10
Nahash King of Ammonites (Egyptians) dies,
suceeded by his son Hanun
Hanun forms alliance with Syrians
both defeated

II Samuel 11
Uriah the Hittite - David takes his wife, arranges for his death in battle

II Samuel 12
David takes city of Rabbah by the waters of the children of Ammon
kills king, takes his crown

II Samuel 15:7
Absalom, David's son, revolts
David flees

II Samuel 17:27
David flees to Mahanim
Shobi son of Nahash of Rabbah of children of Ammon,
Machir son of Ammiel of Lodebar
Bar-zilian the Gileadite of Rogelim
bring support

Itai the Gittite commands part of David's forces

II Samuel 20
Sheba son of Bichri Benjaminite from Mount Ephraim area claims kingship

II Samuel 21
3 years of FAMINE
Gibeonites last remainder of Amurru;

II Samuel 21:15
attack on Philistines

II Samuel 24
Census: 800,000 men in Israel, 500,000 men in Judah
plague 70,000 men dead
Usually people believe what they want to believe until reality intrudes.
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Re: The Walls of Jericho

Postby Minimalist » Fri Jul 10, 2009 11:39 pm

You give an awful of credence to biblical tales which have been dismissed by mainstream archaeology in the last 30 years.

From the long article I posted in this very forum.

The picture of hordes of Israelites sweeping over the Canaanite hill country and burning all the cities in their path does not correlate well with archaeological or textual evidence. Some readers of the Hebrew Bible have invoked the “assured results” of archaeology to support their views of the devastating conquest of Canaan at the hands of the Israelites. However, these types of historical reconstructions have not stood up to the rigorous examination of archaeological data. The failure to be consistent in terms of current research has raised strong skepticism regarding the historical value of the Hebrew Scriptures.

That last sentence is being very polite.
Something is wrong here. War, disease, death, destruction, hunger, filth, poverty, torture, crime, corruption, and the Ice Capades. Something is definitely wrong. This is not good work. If this is the best God can do, I am not impressed.

-- George Carlin
Posts: 15426
Joined: Mon Sep 26, 2005 1:09 pm
Location: Arizona

Re: The Walls of Jericho

Postby E.P. Grondine » Fri Jul 10, 2009 11:48 pm

Further Biblical materials for your annoyance, Min.

E.P. Grondine

Hello Benny -

For the past several years I have circulated several notes to Conference participants on bronze age asteroid and comet impact events, notes which set forth my best understanding of both the chronology of those impact events and their effects on the peoples of the regions affected.

Several recent developments have prompted this collection and updating of some of those notes on the Bronze Age, but most particularly the publication by Robert Drews of his new book on the end of the Bronze Age, a book which bears directly on the events surrounding the ca 1150 BCE encounter of planet Earth with Comet Enke.

In this otherwise fine and insightful book, which should be of great interest to many Conference participants, as it has particular bearing on the collapse of the Bronze Age, and of which more later, at the appropriate time, Drews makes several very significant and critical errors. The first of Drews' errors is his assignment of the Bible's Joshua materials to the late Bronze Age, when it can be shown pretty well from both contemporary documents and from the archaeological evidence that those materials relate to events which occured ca. 1585 BCE. Drews second major error lies is in his description of the Achaeans as a northern greek people, where it is well known from contemporary Hittite documents that these people were in western Anatolia at this time. Drews third major error is his hypothesis of a Pax Mycenica, a Mycenean peace, when it can be shown that the times were far from peaceful.

For several reasons confusion among anthropolohists over materials from the Bible and Homer is extremely prevalent. One of those reasons must be with certainty that the writings of the Bible and Homer touch immediately on the modern national identities of Israel and Greece respectively. Another of the certain reasons for this confusion must be that for centuries these documents have provided modern man with his only insight into those Bronze Age times, and because of this they have acquired a large baggage of interpretation.

The situation has changed. Contemporary documents from Bronze Age times are now for the most part either nearly completely or substantially well read. Given this, to give primary reliance to writings which were either composed fairly late, or have a substantial history of transmission through centuries, does not seem to me to be a very good course of action.

Further, we now have the tools of catastrophism, the study of both volcanic eruptions and of asteroid and comet impact events, to sort out at least a broad chronology of the Bronze Age; because of the unmistakable and massive devastation caused by these catastrophic events, fine tools they are.

I suppose I should be upfront and admit at the very start of this summary my own nationalistic biases. I am neither particularly fascinated by either the ancient Israelites or the Greeks. Instead, my own fascination lies with the "Minoan" peoples, and for the most part they are dead. While I had read of their societies when I was eight years old, I suppose that the fascination began when I was about twelve or thirteen, and read books illustrating their palaces and picturing their magnificent frescoes. Those pictures showed peoples thoroughly enjoying life, living in an advanced state, peoples who disappeared pretty much without much trace. What happened?

There things remained, until my interest in those peoples was re-kindled with the discovery of the remains of the massive explosion of the volcano at Thera. Here lay an explanation for what happened to them, and the possibility that there would be discovered additional works in their writing system, enough works so that their langauage could be read, and finally their history and their insights into living could be learned.

But enough about my personal interest. It is now time to move on to my faults. I suppose that if I had studied ancient Egyptian, Mycenean Greek or Hittite in college instead of economics, the following collection of worknotes would be much improved. As it is, they will surely contain errors, and given the heat with which some hold their views on those times, those errors are likely to be seen as being as bad as those of Drews. Given that heat, and I suppose there is no way of avoiding it, perhaps the best thing to do is to jump right in, with an examination of the Ullikummi impact event and the Patristic times of the Old Testament


In my note to Conference participants entitled "WORKNOTES ON MAN IN THE ANCIENT NEAR EAST AND IMPACT EVENTS"

I argued that the Rio Cuarto Impact Event could be used to date the times of the rule of Sargon of Akkad.


From what can be puzzled out with a great degree of difficulty, and thus not all that clearly, the Maya were pretty insistent that an impact event occurred around 2360 BCE; as a matter of fact, the Maya appear to insist that it occurred exactly on 25 October, 2360 BCE. Fortunately for us, the Maya never developed a clock, as we would now have to puzzle that out as well.

Some here will remember that this impactor appears to have entered on an angle, and that Masse had assembled myth materials from throughout South America which indicated that the whole of the continent of South America east of the Andes in an area stretching from today's Guiana in the north to Argentina in the south was set on fire by the heat thrown off from this impactor's entry:

The Maya reported that torrential rains washed away the "Mud People", torrential rains which most likely were precipitated by the ash from this massive fire. Recent NASA studies have shown that in the Northern Hemisphere, such ash induced rains will most likely result in a lack of rain, in other words drought, occurring further east:

Now following one of the typical conflicts between the Sumerian city states for suzzerainity, the Semetic Akkadians under the leadership of Sargon managed to seize control of the city of Kish from the non-Semetic Sumerians. After Sargon, the Akkadian's first ruler, conquered Sumer proper in the south, he then went on to conquer a wide sweep of land extending up the Euphrates River and on to the coast of the Mediteranean Sea. It must be kept in mind that both Cyprus as well as the Jordan River-Dead Sea Valley were copper and tin sources, and that Sargon needed the bronze made from the copper and tin from these areas to manufacture the weapons he needed to equip his armies.

The low chronology dates for the Akkadian rulers are given as Sargon 2334-2279 BCE, Rimush 2279-2270 BCE, Manishtusu 2269-2255, and Naram-Sin 2254-2214 BCE. If the low chronology is correct, then possibly an earlier influx of Semetic peoples from the impact drought stricken areas to the east of Sumer may account for Sargon's ability to take control of the city of Kish. On the other hand, the middle chronology dates for the Akkadian rulers are Sargon 2398-2343 BCE, Rimush 2343-2334 BCE, Manishtusu 2333-2319, and Naram-Sin 2318-2278 BCE. With the middle chronology, the impact produced drought would have led to to the revolt which Sargon faced mid-way through his reign.

As will be seen later, the Akkadian middle chronology best explains all of the data, including that from Egypt.


Dr. Courty has long been arguing that an impact occured in the Tel Leillan area, and in an earlier note to Conference participants I relayed the account of an impact event which was recorded by the Hurrians in their "Song of Ullikummi". I now think that it may be possible to date this impact to the time of Sargon's later successor, the Akkadian king Naram-Sin, 2318-2278 BCE by the middle chronology. A victory stela of Naram-Sin has survived the ages, and it appears to show this impact event:

As Naram-Sin himself put it:

"Whereas, for all time since the formation of humankind there has never been a king who overthrew Armanum and Ebla with the weapon of Nergal (as) did Naram-Sin, the mighty, open the only path and he (Nergal) gave him Armanum and Ebla. He (Nergal) bestoyed upon him (Naram-Sin) the Amanus too, (and) the Cedar Mountain (the Jordan Valley), and the Upper Sea (the Mediterranean Sea), and by the weapon of Dagan, exalter of his kingship, Naram-Sin, the mighty, defeated Armanum and Ebla. Then, from the hither face (far west side) of the Euphrates (River), he (Naram-Sin) smote the river bank as far as Ulusium, as well as the people whom Dagan had for the first time bestowed upon him, and they bear for him the burden of Ilaba his god. The Amanus too, the Cedar Mountain, he conquered completely."

In this passage "with the weapon of Nergal" is a very important qualifier, since Sargon had conquered Ebla earlier, and this fact was well known by all Akkadians. On the other hand, Sargon had never had an impactor strike his enemies and deliver them to him, as Naram-Sin had, and Naram-Sin fell into delusions of grandeur, elevating himself to the status of a god, as may be seen by the horned headress he shows himself wearing in his victory stela.


While looking through Hittite materials, I stumbled across "The Song of Ullikummi", which pretty clearly is a myth describing a fairly massive impact event, and most likely the Tel Leilan impact event itself.

In the main the text here is from "The Song of Ullikummi: Revised text of the Hittite version of a Hurrian Myth, Hans Gustav Guterbock, Oriental Institute, University of Chicago, publisher The American Schools of Oriental Research, New Haven, Connecticut, 1952", with the following significant changes:

1) In an attempt to relate some of the poetic qualities of the Song, Guterbock made his translation as nearly interlinear as he possible could. Guterbock acknowledged the awkwardness of the result, and here word order has been modified slightly to give the translation an easier flow.

2) It is clear that the logogram (d)U, usually translated as "Storm God" or "Weather God", is better translated by "Sky God", as it is evident that (d)U is supposed to control not only the weather but also impactors. In a similar way "nepisi", translated as "Heaven" by Guterbock, is clearly no mythical place, as in Christian tradition, but instead a very real place, a "Celestial Realm", which is used here.

3) Guterbock was puzzled (page 55) as what kind of stone (NA)kunkunuzzi was. It is clearly a meteorite-stone, having received its name onomatopoetically from the sound of the explosion, kunkun, that impactors made when they hit.

4) Some changes come from alternatives suggested by Guterbock in the commentary: (GIS)siiattal is clearly best translated as "spear point", as Guterbock suggested (page 54) and not as "blade", which he used.

5) The enclitic -ma, which Guterbock always translated as "but", is sometimes replaced by "while", when the opposition in sense is weak, or it has been dropped entirely. Other changes substitute synonyms; and the pronoun "the" has been replaced in the conversation formula by "these" where appropriate.

6) units of measure

[My asides are initialed - epg]


[And] in [whose] mind there is [....]
[Into his mind] wisdom he takes.
Of Kumarbi, Father of all the Gods, I shall sing.


Kumarbi takes wisdom into his mind,
and he raises as evil a bad day.
And against the Sky-God he plans evil,
and against the Sky-God he raises a rebel.

Kumarbi [takes] wisdom into his mind,
and sticks it on like a bead.

[This may be a reference to crenelation work in jewelry making. - epg]

When Kumarbi had taken wisdom into his mind,
he promptly rose from his chair.
He took a staff into his hand,
he put the swift winds upon his feet as shoes.

And from (his) town of Urkishh he set out;
And to the Cold Pond he came.

[The meaning of "ikunta luli", "cold pond" is unclear, but it is someplace
in space. Guterbock (page 4) identifes "urkish" as being probably east
of the tigris, in the easternmost part of the hurrian realm, but possibly it
is a mythical land in the east where the earth, the sky, and the celestial
realm meet.

Guterbock used "League" in his translation in an approximate and not
in an exact way as a unit of measurement. Absolute values for both "league" " " and " " " " have been recoverd from Ugarit and they are enclosed in brackets to the right. - epg]

When Kumarbi arrived,
There lay in Cold Pond
A great Rock.
Her length is three "leagues",
while her width is [1] "league"
and a half "league".

What she has below,
Upon this [...]
His mind sprang forward.
And with the rock he slept,
And into her his manhood [flowed],
And he took her five times,
And he took her ten times again.

[A break in all the tablets occurs. When the tablets continue, for some reason the Sea-God has begun to suspect what has happened. Since the sea was hit by an earlier impactor, as will be seen later in the song, the sea-god has sent his vizier Impaluri to make sure that Kumarbi is not planning to hit him again. The tablets pick back up at the end of Impaluri's visit to Kumarbi. - epg]

[...Kumarb]i, the Father of the Gods,
Remains upon his throne.

(...Impaluri) saw Kumarbi,
(...Impaluri) went to the Sea-God.

And Impaluri to the Sea-God began to speak these words:
"What my lord [...] me,
close to the Sea-God[...]
I [...]
[On his throne] Kumarbi, Father of the Gods,
remains seated."

When the Sea-God heard Impaluri's words,
The Sea-God began to speak again to Impaluri:
"O Impaluri, my Vizier,
The words which I speak to you,
[to my words] hold (your) ear,
Go and speak these strong words to Kumarbi,
Go, and say to Kumarbi:

"Why did you come in anger against my house?
So that trembling seized (my) house,
And fear seized (my) servants?
For you, cedar resin has long been broken;
For you, dishes have long been cooked;
For you, by day and night, the singers hold set the lutes.
Get up, and come to my house.'"

And he got up, Impaluri,
And Impaluri went before him [Kumarbi].

And Kumarbi [came out of his] house,
And Kumarbi traveled,
And he went into the Sea-God's house.

And the Sea-God spoke:
"They shall set a stool to sit on for Kumarbi;
They shall set a table before him;
They shall bring him (things) to eat and to drink,
And they shall bring him beer to drink."

The cooks brought dishes,
And the cup-bearers brought sweet wine to drink to him.
They drank once;
They drank twice;
They drank three times;
They drank four times;
They drank five times;
They drank six times;
They drank seven times.

And Kumarbi began to speak to his vizier Mukishanu:
"O Mukishanu, my Vizier,
The word which I speak to you,
To me hold (your) ear:
Take a staff into (your) hand,
Put shoes upon your feet.
Now go [...]
And into the waters [...]
And speak these words before the waters:

[A break in all the tablets occurs. It appears that Kumarbi and the Sea-God
reach an agreement, as the Sea-God's vizier Impaluri later works as a
messenger for Kumarbi. The tablets pick back up with the birth of Ullikummi,
the comet which will impact. - epg]

When the night [...]
When the middle night watch came,
[...] came.
The Stone [...] the Stone,
And [...],
And [...they] brought him to birth,
[...] the Rock [...]
[...] Kumarbi's son [...]

They brought him to birth [...the midwives],
and the Fate-Goddesses and the Mother-Goddesses took the child,
and they placed him on Kumarbi's knee.
Kumarbi began to rejoice over this son,
and he began to fondle him,
and he began to give a dear name to the child.

[The birth of the comet and presage of the next part of the song follow immediately. The comet is compared to a spear point at this time, but it will grow in length as it goes sunward, as will be seen. Guterbock (page 5) identifies Kummiya, the residence of the Sky-God, Tesub,
as being located in the mountains of south-eastern anatolia, and the name Ulli/kummi is probably derived as a compound of the place name Kummiya. Tashmishu is the Sky-God's brother. - epg]

Kumarbi in his own mind began to speak:
"What name shall I put on him,
On the son whom the Fate-Goddesses and Mother-Goddesses gave me?

Out of (her) body like a spear point he sprang -
He shall go!

Ullikummi shall be his name!
He shall go up to the Celestial Realm to kingship!
Amd he shall press down the beloved town of Kummiya!
He shall hit the Sky-God,
and he shall pound him (into) salt,
and he shall crush him like an ant with his foot,
He shall break off Tashmishu like a [...] reed!
He shall scatter all the Gods down from the Celestial Realm like birds,
And he shall break them like empty vessels!"

[Kumarbi now realizes he will have to hide his son Ullikummi, the comet, from his intended victims, lest they discover ullikummi and stop him. The "dark earth" is best understood as the void of cosmic space.- epg]

When Kumarbi had ceased to speak (these) words,
He began to speak (again) in his own mind :
"To whom shall I give him, this son?
Who will take him,
And treat him as a gift?
And who will [...]
And who will carry him to the [dark] earth (/the void of cosmic space/)?
(So that) the Sun-God of the Celestial Realm
And the Moon-God shall not see him?
He shall not see him,
The Sky-God, the brave king of Kummiya,
and he shall not kill him?
She shall not see him,
Ishtar, queen of Nineveh,
and she shall not break him off like a [...] reed?"

Kumarbi began to speak to Impaluri:
"O Impaluri,
I speak to you these words,
to my words hold your ear:
Take a staff into your hand,
Put upon your feet as shoes the swift winds!
And go to the Irshirraas-Gods,
and speak before the Irsirras-Gods these strong words:

He calls you,
Kumarbi, Father of the Gods,
to the House of the Gods.
But the matter about which he calls you,
(that you know not).
Now come promptly!'"

When Impaluri [heard these words],
He took the staff into his hand,
He put the shoes upon his feet,
and Impaluri traveled forth.

And he came to the Irsirraas,
[And Impaluri] began to speak the words again to the Irshirraas-Gods:
He calls you,
Kumarbi, Father of the Gods!
But the matter about which he calls you,
You know not.
Now hurry, come!"

When the Irshirraas-Gods heard the words,
They hurried, hastened,
and they [rose from their throne],
And they covered the way at once (in an instant),
and they came to Kumarbi.

[Kumarbi tells the Irshirraas-gods to take Ullikummi and put him on the
shoulder of Upelluri, an Atlas-like god who carries on his back both the
celestial realm and the earth. - epg]

And Kumarbi began to speak to the Irshirraas-Gods:
"Take [this child],
And [treat] him as a gift,
And carry him to the dark earth (/the void of cosmic space/).
Hurry, hasten!
And put him as a spear point
upon Upelluri's right shoulder!

[Description of growth of the comet's tail as it approaches sunward.
In the translation "yard" and "furlong" stand in for unknown units of
measurement. Description of the comet's coma - epg]

In one day he shall grow a "yard";
In one month he shall grow a "furlong";
The stone which is at his head,
His face shall cover."

When the Irshirraas-Gods heard these words,
They took [the child] from Kumarbi's knees.
The Irshirraas-Gods lifted the child,
And they pressed him unto their breast like a garment.
And they lifted him like [th]e win[ds],
and they placed him on Enlil's knees.

And Enlil lifted his eyes,
and he saw the child.
The child was standing before the Deity:
The child's body (was) made of stone,
of meteorite-stone.

And Enlil began to speak in his own mind:
"Who is he, this child,
Who the Fate-Goddesses and Mother-Goddesses raised again?
Who would see them [any longer],
the great Gods' strong battles?

This is an evil plan
of no one but Kumarbi!
(Just) as Kumarbi raised the Sky-God,
so he raised this Meteorite-stone as (a) rebel against him!"

[The comet now appears in the celestial realm and approaches the sun. - epg]

When Enlil [ceased to speak] these words,
they put the child as a spear point
upon Upelluri's right shoulder.

He grew up, the Meteorite-stone,
and the strong [...] raised him:
In one day he grew one "yard",
In one month he grew one "furlong";
The stone which was at his head,
his face covered.

[Either ca 43 days (one month and 15 days), or 15 days alone, pass between the comet's
first appearance and the collision of fragments from it with the Sun. - epg]

When the fifteenth (15th) day came,
The Stone had grown high.
And he stood in the sea on his knees (point)
like a spear-point.
The Stone, he stood out of the water,
and his height was like [...],
and the Stone reached from the sea like a garment
up to the "Place of the Belt".
The Stone, like a [...] he was lifted,
And he reached up to the temples and chamber
in the celetial realm.

[Fragments from the comet now impact with the sun - epg]

The Sun-God looked down from the Celestial Realm,
and he saw Ullikummi.
And Ullikummi saw the Sun-God of the Celestial Realm [as well].

And the Sun-God began to speak in his own mind:
"What swift God [is standing] in the sea?
His body is not like that of the [...] Gods."

The Sun-God of the Celestial Realm turned [his face],
and he went out to the sea.
And when the Sun-God came out [to the sea],
The Sun-God held (his) hand to his forehead.
and from his anger
his [...] became altered.

[A second day goes by. The Sun-God leaves the celestial realm and visits
the Sky-God in Kummiya. After a feast, the Sun-God returns to the
celestial realm. It seems likely that a fragment of the comet hit the earth,
the dust blocked out the sun for a short period of time, the dust settled,
and the sun reappeared. - epg]

When the Sun-God of the Celestial Realm saw the Stone,
the Sun-God [crossed] again the horizon for a second time.
[...u]p he traveled,
and to the Sky-God he went.

And when he saw the Sun-God coming,
Tashmishu (the Sky-God's brother) began to speak these words to the Sky-God:
"O Sky-God, my lord!
Why does he come,
The Sun-God of the Celestial Realm,
[The king] of the land?
That matter about which he comes,
(that) matter is grave,
it is not to be cast aside.

It is strong, the struggle!
It is strong, the battle!
It is the uproar of the Celestial Realm!
It is the land's hunger and death!"

The Sky-God began to speak to Tashmishu:
"They shall set up a chair,
for his seating;
They shall lay out a table,
for his eating."

While they were speaking thus,
The Sun-God arrived [at] their [house].
They set up a chair for his seating,
But he did not sit down;
They laid out a table for his eating,
But he did not reach out;
They gave him a cup,
But he did not put his lips to it.

And he, the Sky-God, again began to speak to the Sun-God:
"Is the chamberlain bad,
who set up the chair,
so that you did not sit down?
Is the steward bad,
who set the table,
so that you did not eat?
Is the cup bearer bad,
who gave you the cup,
so that you did not drink?"

[End of first tablet. Beginning of second tablet badly fragmented. - epg]

The Sky-God again [began to speak to the Sun-God:]
"[Why] do you not eat [...?]
[...] pleasant [...?]"

[The Sun-God] again began to speak [to the Sky-God:]
"[...] refused [...]
[...] about wh[at ...]"

[All tablets break off here. When they pick back up, the sky-god has
learned about ullikummi from the sun-god. - epg]

[When] the Sky-God heard [these words],
his [appearance] became altered from his anger.

And the Sky-God again began to speak [to the Sun-God of the Celestial Realm]:
"The bread on the table shall become pleasant.
Now eat!
The sweet wine in the cup shall become pleasant.
Now drink!
Eat, and fill yourself.
Drink, and satisfy yourself.
Then get up,
and go up to the Celestial Realm."

When the Sun-God of the Celestial Realm heard [these words],
his mind within him rejoiced.
The bread on the table became pleasant,
[and] he ate.
The sweet wine in the cup became pleasant,
and he drank.
And the Sun-God got up,
and he went up to the Celestial Realm.

[The Sky-God, his brother Tashmishu, and Ishtar go to Mount Hazzi,
identified by Guterbock, (page 5), as semitic Zaphon, greek
Kasion Oros, at the mouth of the Orontes River in North Syria. From
there they see the meteorite-stone. - epg]

After [the departure of the Sun-God of] the Celestial Realm,
The Sky-God took wisdom into his mind.
And the Sky-God and Tashmishu took each other by the hand,
and they came out of the chamber, the temple.

Ishtar came with bravery from the Celestial Realm,
And Ishtar again spoke in her own mind:
"Where do they run, the two brothers?
I shall go and see them."

Ishtar instantly took a stand,
and she stood up before her two brothers.
And they (all) took each other by the hand,
and up to Mount Hazzi they went.

And the King of Kummiya set his face,
He set his face upon the dreadful Meteorite-stone,
And he saw the dreadful Meteorite-stone,
and from his anger his [...] became changed.

And the Sky-God sat down on the ground,
and his tears flowed forth like streams.
The Sky-God, his eyes tearful, spoke these words:
"Who can endure it any longer, this one's violence?
And who can fight any longer?
And who can endure it any longer, this one's fearfulness?"

Ishtar again spoke to the Sky-God:
"O my brother!
Neither [....]
nor little does he know,
but bravery has been given to him ten fold!
And the son whom [...] beget for themselves,
[...] you know not.
[...] in Ea's house we were,
[... if] I were a man,
You would [...]
I shall go [and ...]

[The tablets break off. When they continue, Ishtar has gone to the sea to seek help. Ishtar throws a pebble in the water to raise a great wave, which magical right probably reflects memory or myths of an earlier impactor which produced a tsunami. - epg]

But [she took] a harp and a galgalturi,
[...] she lifted.
and a song [she began to sing],
[...] of the Earth [...].
And Ishtar, she sang,
And the sea's (?)
She put a pebble on.

Then out of the sea a great wave rose,
The great wave spoke to Ishtar:
"Who do you sing in front of?
Who do you fill your mouth with [...] in front of?
The man is deaf, and does not hear.
He is blind in his eyes, and does not see.
And he has no mercy.

Go away, O Ishtar,
And find your brother:
As long as he has not yet become brave,
As long as his head's skull has not yet become dreadful."

When Ishtar heard thus,
She quenched the [...],
She threw away the harp and the galgalturi,
She [...] golden [ornaments]
And wailing [...] she went,

[The tablets break completely here. They continue as the Sky-God prepares
for battle and gives orders to Tashmishu. In the translation "furlong" is
used in an approximate and not exact way as a unit of measure. This section
contains a description of the impact balst itself, and note that
through some kind of magical thinking, the power of the impactor has been
transferred to our heros, the Sky-God and his brother Tashmishu. - epg]

[...] they shall mix fodder,
and they shall bring perfumed oil,
and they shall annoint Serisu's horns,
while they shall cover with gold Tella's tail,
while they shall turn the axle.
And they shall bring strong [...(harnesses)] to their inside,
while to the outside, they shall set strong stones as blinders.

They shall call forth the thunder-storms:
The rains and winds which break the rocks for ninety "furlongs",
while they cover them for eight hundred "furlongs".
They shall call forth the rains and the winds!

They shall bring out of the sleeping room
the lightning, which strongly flashes,
And they shall bring out the carts.

Now arrange, set them,
and bring me back word."

When Tashmishu heard the words,
he hurried, hastened.
[He brought] Serisu from the pasture,
while he brought Tella from (Mount) Imgarra.
And he [... them] in the outer porch,
and he brought perfumed oil,
and he annointed Serisu's horns,
while [he covered with gold] Tella's tail,
while he [...] the axles,
while he set strong stones to the outside [as blinders].

He called forth the thunder-storms:
The rains and winds which break the rock for nintey "furlongs",

[The tablets break off at this point. They continue as the battle is joined.
"Yards", "leagues", and "furlongs" are used in the translation in an
approximate and not exact way. This passage contains a description of the
growth of the blast cloud. - epg]

[...] one thousand "yards",

[... The Sky-God] took a stand to fight.
Then he took the battle gear,
and he took the carts,
and he brought the clouds from the Celestial Realm.
And the Sky-God set his face on the Meteorite-stone,
and he saw him.
And his height was [...]
and again his height one hundred and eighty [or three times][...] was turned.

The Sky-God began to speak to T[ashmishu]:
"The cart [...]



When the Gods heard the word,
They took their place in the carts.
[...] they assigned.
Astabi sprang [upon his cart...],
and on the cart he [...].
[...] the carts he arrayed,

And Astabi, he thundered,
and Astabi let go with thunder down towards the sea.
And they drew [...water].
And Astabi [...];
[...] Seventy Gods took.
But still he was not able [...]

And A[stabi ....],
and the Seventy Gods [fell] down into the sea.


[...] the Meteorite-stone his body [...]
and he shook the Celestial Realm.
[...] he [...]ed
The Celestial Realm [...] like an empty garment he [...]ed.
And the Meteorite-stone [...] became high:
Before [...] one thousand nine hundred "leagues",
[...] "leagues".
And the Meteorite-stone stood down on the Earth,
like a [...], the Meteorite-stone, he was lifted,
and he reached the chamber and the temple.


The Meteorite-stone, [his height was] nine thousand "leagues",
while his width was nine thousand [...].
And he took his stand in Kummiya like a [...],
And the Meteorite-stone rose above Hebat and the temple:
So that Hebat could not hear news of the Gods,
(and) she could not see with her eyes the Sky-God and Suwaliyatta.


Hebat began to speak these words to Takiti:
"I hear not the weighty word of the Sky-God;
I hear not news of Suwaliyatta and the Gods.
This Meteorite-stone Ullikummi of whom they speak,
Perhaps he has defeated him, my husband, the weighty [King...]!

Hebat began to speak again to Takiti:
"Hear my words!
Take a staff into your hand,
Put the sw[ift winds] upon your feet as shoes,
[...] Go!

When Takiti heard the words,
She hurried, hastened,
[...] out draw[n...]
[...] went:
And there was not a road!

[Takiti return]ed,
and she came to Hebat.
[Takiti again began to spe]ak [to Hebat]:
"My Lady, [...] me


When Tashmishu heard the Sky-God's words,
He promptly rose.
He took a staff in his hand;
He put the swift winds as shoes upon his feet.

And he went up into a high tower,
and he took [his place] opposite Hebat, saying:
"The Sky-God bade me to go to a humble place,
until he will have fulfilled the years that are decreed for him."

When Hebat saw Tashmishu,
Hebat almost fell from the roof.
Had she taken a step,
she would have fallen from the roof.
But the palace women held her,
and did not let her (go).


When Tashmishu had ceased to speak the word,
he stepped down from the tower,
and he went to the Sky-God.
Tashmishu again began to speak to the Sky-God:
"Where shall we sit down?
Shall we sit down on (Mount) Kandurna?
[If] we sit down on (Mount) Kandurna,
another will be seated upon (Mount) Lalapaduwa.
Where shall we carry [the ...]?
There will be no king above in the Celestial Realm."

Tashmishu again began to speak to the Sky-God:
"O Sky-God, my lord!
Hear my words!
The words which I speak to you,
To my words hold your ear inclined!
Come! Let us go to Apsuwa, before Ea,
[...] we shall ask again for the tablets of the former words.

Now when we arrive before the gate of Ea's house,
We shall bow before Ea's door five times,
and again before Ea's inner door five times,
While when we arrive before Ea,
then before Ea we shall bow fifteen times.
[And to] Ea it will perhaps [...],
and Ea perhaps will listen,
and he will have mercy upon us,
and he will assign us (our) former rule."

When the Sky-God heard Tashmishu's words,
he hurried, hastened.
From his chair he promptly rose.
[The Sky-God and Tasmis]u took each other by the hand,
and they covered the way at once (instantly, immediately),
and [they arrived] at Apsuwa.

[And the Sky-God] went to Ea's house,
and before Ea's first door he bowed five times,
and before the inner door he bowed five times,
[while when] they arrived before Ea,
before Ea he bowed fifteen times.

[...] stood up,
[...] began to speak:


[...] the word [in] (his) mind not [...],
Ea [took] wisdom [into his mind],
and he stood up,
and he went [...] into the courtyard.
Ea [...],
and all the Gods stood up [before] him,
and the Sky-God, the brave king [of Kummiya],
[stood up be]fore [him].

Ea saw the Sky-God,
[and] from (his) anger his [appearance] became changed.


By the hand they [took each other],
While [...]
[...] came out of the assembly.
[Enlil ...]
and he began to wail:
"May you live, O Ea!
[...] who comes back and forth,
[...] of the Gods' propitiation [...].
Why did you transgress it [...]?"

Ea began to speak to Enlil:
["Do you not know, O Enlil?]
[Has no one brought] you a word?
Do you not know him,
the rebel who Kumarbi fashioned against the Sky-God,
[the Meteorite-stone who in the water] grew?
His he[ght ...]
[And] like [a...] he is lifted."


When Ea ceased to speak the words,
He went to Upelluri,
And Upelluri [lifted] (his) eyes,
[and he saw Ea.]
Upelluri began to speak to Ea these words:
"May you live, O Ea!"
And he stood up,
[and Ea in turn began to wish] life to Upelluri:
"May he live, Upelluri,
upon the dark earth (/in the void of cosmic space/),
(he) upon whom [the Celestial Realm and Ear]th are built!"

Ea began to speak again to Upelluri:
"Do you not know, O Upelluri?
Has no one brought you word?
Do you not know him,
the swift God whom Kumarbi fashioned against the Gods?
And that Kumarbi [has made] death plans against the Sky-God,
and fashions a rebel against him?
The Meteorite-stone who grew in the water,
do you not know him?
And like a [...] he is lifted,
And (that) he covered the Celestial Realm, the holy temples, and Hebat?
Is it because you, Upelluri,
are remote from the dark earth (/cosmic space/),
that you do not know this swift God?"

Upelluri again began to speak to Ea:
"When they built the Celestial Realm and Earth upon me,
I knew nothing.
(And) when they came,
and they cut apart the Celestial Realm and Earth with a cutter,
this, too, I did not know.
Now, something makes my right shoulder hurt,
but I do not know who he is, this God."

When Ea heard these words,
He turned Upelluri's right shoulder,
and there on there on Upelluri's right shoulder
stood the Meteorite-stone like a spear head!

Ea again began to speak to the Former Gods:
"Hear my words, O Former Gods,
Who know the former words!
Open them again, the old fatherly, grandfatherly, store-houses,
and bring the Former Fathers' seal,
and with it seal them again!
And they shall bring out the former saw,
with which they cut apart the Celestial Realm and Earth,
[And...] saw under the feet of Ullikummi, the Meteorite-stone,
whom Kumarbi raised as a rebel against the Gods."


But Tashmishu [...],
[before Ea] he prostrated himself,
[...] began to speak:
[the ...] in his body have been altered,
[on his] head the hair has been altered."

Ea again began to speak to Tashmishu:
"Go ahead with my son!
Do not stand up before me!
My mind within me became angry:
With my eyes I saw the dead [...] on [... the] Earth:
They are dust,
while the [...] are standing up!"

Ea began to speak again to Tashmishu:
"First I struck him, Ullikummi, the meteorite-stone.
Now you go and fight him again!
The Meteorite-stone shall no longer stand as a spear-point!"

Tashmishu [...] began to rejoice,
and he shouted three times,
and he went up to the Celestial Realm,
and the Gods heard it.
He shouted twice,
and the brave King of Kummiya,
the Sky-God heard it.
And they came to the assembly place,
and all the Gods began to bellow like bulls
against Ullikummi, the Meteorite-stone.

Then the Sky-God sprang upon his cart like a [...],
and he went with thunder down to the sea.
And he fought him,
The Sky-God fought the Meteorite-stone.

The Meteorite-stone began to speak the words to the Sky-God:
"What shall I tell you?
O Sky-God, Keep fighting!"
And also his (whose?) [...] stands within his mind.

"What shall I tell you?
O Sky-God, Keep fighting!"
Kumarbi stuck wisdom into his mind like a bead.

"I will go up to the Celestial Realm, to kingship;
and I will take Kummiya, the dear town, temple, and dwelling;
while I will scatter the Gods down from the Celestial Realm like birds."

{The remainder is fragmentary. - epg]


When one considers that Guterbock had no idea of the underlying
physical phenomena which was being described in the myth, cometary impact,
his work in restoring the Song becomes truly remarkable. Now that the
phenomenon is positively identified, it will be up to those far more
skilled than I am to give us a new edition of the text: I am completely
ignorant of the work which must have been done on it since 1952.

What can be learned from the text at this point? If the myth has an
actual basis in a real event, and given the efforts which were put into
it by the ancients, one can not but conclude that it does; then if there
are no other destruction layers in the Tel Leilan area, one can conclude
that it is an account of the Tel Leilan impact event itself.

The Tel Leilan impactor can be identified as a comet.

If the "belt" which the comet's tail reached to could be identified, then
the absolute size of it could be determined. While I am ignorant of Hittite
astronomical terms, I am bold (or foolish) enough to suggest that perhaps
the Hittites saw the Milky Way as Upelluri's (Atlas's) belt. If so, the
size of the comet was staggering, and one is left to wonder if any of its
fragments still remain in orbit.

The comet traveled either one month and 15 days or 15 days alone from its
first appearance until fragments from it collided with the Sun. It struck
the Earth coming in the direction of the Earth's orbital travel, instead of

It seems probable that the comet's fragments spread out, and that one
fragment from the comet hit the Earth a day before the fragment at Tel Leilan,
and that this impact was sufficiently large to raise a dust cloud which
obscured the Sun.

The town of Kummiya was in the impact area.

Approximate estimates for the real distances of the Hittite words which
Guterbock translated as "yards", "leagues", and "furlongs", have undoubtedly
been made since 1952, and if they were to be substituted into the text,
perhaps approximate estimates of the size of the impactor and the blast could
be made.

Given the involvements of other older Gods in this impact myth, it seems
most likely that there was an earlier impact which caused a large tsunami
which flooded the region.

Somewhat fittingly, it has been raining and thundering here for the last
two days. In closing this introduction, I echo Guterbock, "That this
interpretation is not final goes without saying." Someone with far greater
abilities than mine (and with far better resources at hand) needs to work
through these texts.


Naram-Sin was not the only leader to desire the impact depopulated Hurrian lands. A short time later the Guteans (possibly an Indo-European people) entered the area, and then they descended upon the Akkadian's capitol city of Agade. We have a much later account of their victory preserved in the morality tale "The Curse of Agade":


Clearly Naram-Sin had enough time between his victory and the Gutean migration/invasion to produce his stela. While it is still uncertain whether the droughts which affected this area were caused by volcanic eruptions, comet dust, dust rasied by the impacts of other fragments of the Ullikummi Impactor, long term climatic shifts, or a combination of any or all of the above, it is fairly certain that one of these droughts may be dated toward the end of Nara-Sin's reign.

Naram-Sin's attempts to take control of the the copper deposits of the Jordan Valley provoked a response by Pharoah Pepi I of Egypt, as the Egyptians had enjoyed uninterruped use of these resources from pre-dynastic times: ... oject.html

And an account of these campaigns was preserved by the Pepi I's military commander, Wenis:

The dates for Pepi I's reign are usually given as 2289-2255 BCE, and an overlap with Naram-Sin, 2318-2278 BCE, is only possible if the middle chronology is used. Thus a box of years from 2289 to 2278 BCE presents itself as the most likely time for the beginning of this particular drought.


As was mentioned before, Sargon had gone into the Jordan Valley before Naram-Sin, and one of the problems currently under discussion between the excavator of Ebla, Paolo Matthiae, and his chief linguist, Giuvanni Pettinato, is "Who destroyed Ebla, Sargon or Naram-Sin?"

In Weni's Autobiography we find that he claims to have enlisted the support of the Yam-Nubians, or Yam-foreigners in the north. In contrast to other semetic people who used "El" as a word for god, the Eblaites used "Ya" as their term for god. Since the Eblaites are mentioned in Weni's autobiography, clearly Sargon did not destroy Ebla, but Naram-Sin did.


Roughly comtemporaneous with Sargon (2398-2343 BCE) was Pharoah Izi Niuserre (2416-2392 BCE), the sixth king of the Fifth Dynasty of Egypt. Not surprisingly, Pharoah Izi undertook at least one campaign against the "asiatics", undoubtedly in response to Sargon's attempt to secure the copper and tin resources of the Jordan Valley.

We should find both the Rio Cuarto Impact drought of about 2360 BCE and the Naram-Sin drought of sometime between 2318-2278 BCE recorded in the Egyptian records. After Izi, the Egyptian Pharoahs were Menkauhor(2396-2388 BCE), Djedkare Izezi(2388-2356 BCE), Wenis(2356-2323 BCE), and Teti(2323-2291 BCE). A famine is recorded under Weni, while Teti was murdered by his own officials for reasons which are currently unknown. My guess is that they were probably drought related.


There are two sites in the area between Akkad and Egypt where it appears likely that cuneiform records may be recovered which could resolve these chronological problems. These are the archaeological sites of the cities of Megiddo and Hazor, and these cities would have been in "contact" with both the Akkadians and the Egyptians during the period under study here.

The excavation of Megiddo is currently focused on (some might say fixated on) the recovery of late Iron Age dates:

Thus the near term excavations of Megiddo will probably not be of much help in resolving the problems of the chronology of far earlier periods.

The news from the second site, Hazor, is much more promising:

There the search for the archive of the Early Bronze Age palace is on.

Hazor was also the leading Canaanite city at the time of Joshua's invasion, and its king led the coalition of Canaanite cities which formed against the ancient Israelites. Last year's excavations uncovered a destruction level dating to Joshua's destruction of the city. The excavators ascribed this destruction level to Thutmose III's campaign, even though it was not likely that Thutmose III was out to attack the cities of Canaan, which had earlier allied themselves with Egypt against Akkad. It is far more likely that the new defensive citadel built atop this destruction level was Thutmose III's work.


First, when dealing with any impact materials, it is important to remember that over a suitably long enough period of time the people living in any one region will be affected by impact events several times. When dealing with their records it is important to keep this in mind, and not to conflate together accounts of separate impact events.

Second, ancient man in the Near East was affected by catastrophe a number of times, and not all of these catastrophes were impacts or impact related. A number were volcanic, such as the volcanic explosion of Thera, and a number were climatic catastrophes of still undetermined cause. What impact events can do, because of their scale, is help with the dating of these events, and thus help with the determination of their causes, and thus hopefully with their future amelioration.

Third, not all of the catastrophes which affected man in the ancient Near East were produced by natural causes: a number of these catastrophes man made. Here is one area where one could certainly at least hope that modern social technologies have advanced to that point where the suffering caused by these catastrophes may be reduced.

Well, Benny, that's it for now.
Best wishes -

By the way, while I disagree with several of the details of his conclusions, I found the insights and materials gathered by Danish researcher Claus Fentz Krogh to be of great help in working through this problem:

and I need to thank him here for that work. Despite its difficulties, Krogh's English is much better then my Danish, which is non-existent, and I especially want to thank him for the effort he made in translating his work into another language so that he could share it with others.

krough on patristic times
recount naram sin/hurrian impact
Song of Illukummi update

red crown cranes at african caustic lake
symbolism - migratory birds
earthquake releases caustic lake into nile
leads to plagues of bible

1628 BCE dating of thera explosion

nature of minoan society:

Plato's description of Minoan culture
admiral's house frescos show Troy - Ilios - Helios - Wilusa
sun is totem of Helios/Ilios

Brown's work on Linear A
readings of the spiral incriptions

Joshua Impact
achaean migration

Tel Dab and Hyksos
Bietak to Cline

Isuwa is Israel; kizzuwadna is Kahoath faction, same as Hyksos
Earlier known to be under Ebla, as central god's name given as El
but at copper deposits at south end of Dead Sea

Due to parallels in Old Testament
known to be in contact with NW semetic peoples at Ugarit
location from Astour's book on Ugarit
list of cities from hittite document

Egyptian invasions - children of amon = children of Amun Ra

Egyptian/Hittite peace

Drews point - Use of massed infantry against chariots

attack by Aleksandrus on Greece
and on Sidon and Mysia in Arzawa from the Cypria
Homeric edits

first attack comes from west as Plato states
Atlantic mega-tsunami date and impact on trading network

Iliad - the achaeans resist, as Plato states

collapse - babylonian omen texts?

broad timeline
Usually people believe what they want to believe until reality intrudes.
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E.P. Grondine
Posts: 1882
Joined: Tue Dec 23, 2008 8:36 am

Re: The Walls of Jericho

Postby E.P. Grondine » Sat Jul 11, 2009 12:00 am

There's nothing like history re-written for nationalisic reasons, well supported with cash, and clouded with confusion:

...The "revisionists'" bias, and thus Alastair's bias, which we have just seen
demonstrated in his faulty summary of the content of the "Joshua" text, is
also reflected in his repetition of "revisionist" omissions on the
archaeology of the Middle Bronze: "The historical Israelite conquests in,
and settlement of, Palestine described in the book may well date to c.1220
BC and subsequent years, [they may well date to that time, except that they
do not] perhaps up to c.1200, though the matter is not definitively settled,
[and there's an understatement] as there is little archaeological evidence
to support the Joshuan conquest,..."

Hold it right there. As I pointed out in my earlier note, the FACT is that
"Joshua" reports the destruction of the coalition military forces, and the
list given there of the coalition military forces includes the military
forces of peoples who are usually lumped together today under the term
"Minoan". Even if "Joshua" did not mention this, another certain FACT is
that Hittite kings always campaigned with the military forces of their
appenage states attached to their own armies, and thus from the CONTEMPORARY
HITTITE ACCOUNTS of Hantilish's campaign one can safely place the "Minoan"
military forces in the area. Sure enough, after the ca 1586 BCE Joshua
event these now defenseless people are conquered by Achaeans ca 1580 BCE,
and we know this from 2 MORE SETS OF CONTEMPORARY RECORDS: those in Hittite
cuneiform detailing the invasion of the west coast of Anatolia, and the
Achaean's own records in Mycenean Linear B from Knossos on Crete. Thus the

The only question that remains is whether this event ca 1586 BCE involved
"stones" or "hailstones". According to a translation into English of later
copies of a work assembled sometime between 10th and 4th centuries BCE from
much earlier oral and written materials, the destruction MAY have come from
"hailstones", but as Alastair points out, this text tradition is very
unreliable. Even weaker than "Joshua" text are the Ionian myths, according
to which the destruction involved "stones". But according to TWO
CONTEMPORARY RECORDS, those of Thutmose I and Idrimi, there was an IMPACT
EVENT which occured at this time. Also, according to other CONTEMPORARY
RECORDS, there is a sudden dramatic fall in the price of meteoritic iron.

Now I have to ask, which should take precedence, the reading of the word
"hailstones" in "Joshua", or the CONTEMPORARY RECORDS and ARCHAEOLOGICAL
REMAINS? Whatever your own answer, my own answer is that in the future I am
just going to sit back and let Alastair and Goran fight it out over the
historicity of Babylonian astronomical omen texts, which if either of them
noticed I have never mentioned or commented on at all in either of these 2
notes on the JOSHUA IMPACT EVENT OF CA. 1586 BCE...
Usually people believe what they want to believe until reality intrudes.
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E.P. Grondine
Posts: 1882
Joined: Tue Dec 23, 2008 8:36 am

Re: The Walls of Jericho

Postby E.P. Grondine » Sat Jul 11, 2009 12:13 am

Hope this clears things up for you -

Hello Benny -

First off, I want to thank Goran Johansson for circulating the results of
his research with the Conference, and to state that in my opinion he is
absoluely correct as to the occurence of a major impact in the middle bronze
age, an impact which severely affected the peoples living in that area.

In your reply to Goran you neglected to mention my note which I circulated
to the Conference several years back on the written materials pertaining to
the Joshua Impact, materials which pretty well demonstrated that the impact
took place not on Crete, as Johansson speculated, but
instead in the area of modern Jerusalem. To recap and expand that note, we
now have some six distinct textual traditions referring to the Joshua
Impact, and one of the completely independent documents is contemporaneous.
If Sorrenson' guess about the Gebal Barbuk inscription is correct, that will
bring to two the number of completely independent contemporaneous sets of
documents which refer to the Joshua Impact Event, and the total number of
distinct text sets to seven.

The first written source for the event, the one with which Conference
participants are probably most familiar, is the biblical book of Joshua,
which admittedly was composed quite a while after the impact event itself.
To summarize once again the account in Joshua, the Israelites leave Egypt at
the time of the eruption of Thera in 1628 BC. They are repulsed at Rephidim,
return to the desert, eliminate the Kohath faction, and establish themselves
on the east bank of the Jordan in lands which were long before under Horim
(Hurrian) control. By the year count within Joshua, this brings us to around
1588 BC.

The Israelites begin to move across the Jordan, and after a particularly
savage attack on Ai, a "multi-national" force is assembled by the Hittites
to stop them. It is important to note that while some researchers point to
one particular tel as Ai, and to the lack of a destruction level there as
proof that the Joshua account is fictional, the identification of this
particular tel as Ai is not universally accepted, and there is another tel
nearby which remains uninvestigated and ignored.

Under the leadership of Joshua, the Israelites launch a night attack on the
Hittite "multi-national" force, and as the force regroups the impact event
occurs: "And it came to pass, as they fled from before Israel, and were
going down to Beth-horon, that the Lord cast down great stones from heaven
upon them unto Azekah, and they died. More died with hailstones than they
whom the children of Israel slew with the sword." The Israelites then went
on to slaughter and enslave a large region, dividing the land ca 1583 BC.

The second group of written sources for this impact event are the
comtemporary Hittite records of Hantilish's (Hantili's) defeat. To
summarize, Hantilish's predecessor Murshilish I (Musili I) is deafened by
the explosion of Thera as a child, and takes the throne in 1604 BC. (The
dating used here follows the Hittite scholar Michael Astour's sequence of
dates in "Hittite History and Absolute Chronology of the Bronze Age, page
2", but adjusted back by 64 years using the middle chronology Babylonian
astronomical cycle observation, which is commonly accepted by Hittite
scholars. The dates thus arrived at coincide very well with those
independently arrived at from the ice cores for the Thera explosion and
other the other texts.)

Murshilish I marches on Babylon in 1595 BC, but on his way home he is
attacked and defeated by the Hurrians. There is a treaty (KUB XXXVI 106 +
KBo IX 73)with "hapiru" ("raiders") which was concluded by either Murshilish
now, or by his successor Hantilish, some time after Hantilish's murder of
Murshilish in 1594 BC and his seizure of the throne.

It is important to note that exactly who the "hapiru" were remains another
issue very hotly contested today. The earlier use by cuneiform scribes of
"hapiru" to indicate a type of vassal seems to be entirely consistent with
the role of the ancient Israelites as vassals to the so-called "Hyksos", the
people who had earlier seized control of Egypt; and as will be seen shortly,
the Israelites are referred to as "hapiru" in other contemporaneous

Hantilish, after his murder of Murshilish I, also campaigns against the
Hurrians, but the Hurri defeat him and take his queen and heirs to Shugziya
and kill them. (Edict of Telepinush, 15-17) According to fragmentary record
KBo III 46, someone dies in Shugziya, after the death of 3 Hittite
commanders, and an unnamed Hittite king assembles 3000 "Hapiru" men and
garrisons them in a (name lost) city. (Astour, page 87)

Filling in the breaks in this series of extremely fragmentary
contemporaneous Hittite records, we also have a third document, a nearly
complete contemporaneous account of the events, the Akadian testament of
Idrimi Ilim Ilimma, King of Alalah. In Indrimi's version of events, a series
of disputes breaks out (which probably arose as a result the Hittite King
Murshilishi I's conquest of Aleppo in 1595 BCE), and he flees Aleppo to the
city of Emar, from which he is also forced to flee.

Idrimi finally find refuge for 7 years with the "hapiru" at Ammija in
Canaan, along with others from Aleppo, Muksis, Nihi and Amae. During these
7 years Idrimi and the "hapiru" are in conflict with Barrattarna, the King
of the Hurrians (biblical Horim).

After these 7 years, "Teshub" the sky god favors Idrimi because of his pious
ACCOUNT. An approximate date for the impact event may be derived by moving
some 7+ years from 1595 BCE, the date of Murshilish I's
conquest of Aleppo, say sometime immediately after 1588 BCE.

Following the impact, Idrimi builds ships at the harbor of Nulla (with the
sabe(Erin mesh), also used to describe the "hapiru") and attacks and
conquers the cities of Alalah, Muksis, Amae, and Nihi. Now independent of
the "hapiru" and running his own kingdom, Idrimi betrays them and makes
peace with Barattarna, the King of the Hurrians.

Then, as Idrimi put it, the "kings to his right and left came against him".
Who exactly these kings were is not clear, but most likely they included
Hantilish, King of the Hittites, Hantilish's new "allies" the Israelites,
the "hapiru", as both were common enemies of the Hurrians, and Thutmose I of
Egypt, who was the enemy of the Hittites, Hurrians, and the
"hapiru", the Israelites. If this makes it any clearer, what we are dealing
with here is a 5 sided conflict which occured after the explosion of Thera
between the Hittites, Hurrians, Aleppans, Israelites, and Egyptians for
control of the northern Syrian ports and these ports' links to the Euphrates
River and thus to the valuable trade with the east.

Though under attack, Idrimi tells as that he defeated all his enemies and
left their bodies piled on the ground, as his father had done. Now secure
against attack, Idrimi goes on to attack the Hittite vassal cities of
Passahe, Damrut-re-i, Hulahhan, Zise, Ie, Uluzila, and Zarana, and he uses
the wealth of these cities to build his kingdom at Alalah.

(For a transcription, translation, and commentary on Idrimi's testament, see
Die Inschrift der Statue des Konigs Idirmi von Alalah, M. Dietrich and O.
Loretz, Ugarit Forschungen, Band 13, 1981, p 201-268.)

The destruction of the Minoan vassal forces under the Hittite King
Hantilish's command left their home lands defenceless, and easy prey for the
Myceneans. Thus Late Minoan IB comes to a rather decisive end, and this
leads to the creation of the forth group of written sources for the Joshua
Impact Event, the Ionian Greek "mythological" records. It appears that
Hantilish was known to the Achaean Mycenean Greeks as Tantalus, the god
(Theos) Hantilish, or T'e-Hantilish, the king of the coastal region of
Sipylus, which has been correctly identified as Hittite Zippasla. The rather
direct Mycenean sense of humor finds typical expression in its description
of Tantalus's fate. After Tantalus dies he is sent to hell, where though
surrounded by food and drink, he can not enjoy them, as he must hold up a
large stone with both hands, in order to keep it from falling on his head.
Thus we have another mention of the Joshua Impact Event.

The fifth group of documents are the later classical records which came from
the region of Sipylus and mentioned Hantilish's expedition. I saw second
hand notice of them in Peter James' book on Atlantis, "The Sunken Kingdom"
and corresponded with James, but still do not have direct citations from him
for this set of records, though I did recieve infromation from James that
Dr. Eva Danelius had conducted work at the area around Beth Horon to the
west of Jerusalem. Whether today's Beth Horon is the same as yesterday's
Beth Horon is another question entirely.

As for other archaeological records of the Joshua impact, there are
destruction levels at Jericho, Hormah, Gibeon, and Arad which have been
dated to 1550 BC, though I do not know if these dates are still valid. It
also appears that the Hittites were so weakened by the Joshua Impact Event
that they were unable to prevent the migration of the Gasgas (Kaskas) and
Achaeans, so in addition to every LM IB site, every archaeological site
concerning the movement of the Gasgas may be listed as well as support for
the Joshua Impact Event (tz'uk). As for our witness Idrimi Ilimi-Ilimma, the
University of Chicago's Oriental Institute has just re-started their
research into his homeland in Northern Syria, and those who are still
blessed may want to consider a tax-deductable donation to the Oriental
Institute's Amuq (Mukishe) Valley Survey project.

All of this brings us to Johansson's note on the Gebal Barkal monument in
Syria, an inscription whose contents I was earlier unaware of. While I don't
have a definitive copy of the Gebal Barkal inscription at hand (though
available either in Baltimore or Chicago, I don't feel like driving today),
one part of it is available via the internet:

"It was not known that you might learn/witness the miracle of [Amun-Re]
before the face of all the Two Lands (Egypt). [It was evening, when the
enemy troops came near]. [The guards] were about to come to meet in the
night to make the regular (change of) watch. THERE WERE TWO HOUR-WATCHERS;
(Younger, 217).

When dealing with this particular text it is important to keep in mind that
the restorations of it set out in brackets need to be handled with extreme
caution, if not re-done entirely, particularly the statements about "[enemy
troops coming near]". Astour places the invasion of Thutmose I against the
Hurrians, (who the Egyptians conveniently refer to as the people of
Mitani-Naharina, as if things weren't already confusing enough), as occuring
at the same time as Hantilish's reign as King of the Hittites. Astour's
chronology for the Egyption kings of this period yields Thutmose I from
1589-1576 BCE, Thutmose II from 1576-1568 BCE, Hateshput 1567-1546 BCE, and
Thutmose III 1568 (co-reign)- 1514 BCE, when adjusted by 64 years to the
Middle Chronology. Reignal year three for Thutmose I thus becomes 1586 BCE.

Thutmose I attacked Za'una and Niya, cities which had been taken by Idrimi,
and this most likely is one of the attacks Idrimi referred to in his
testament. Thus what appears to have happened is that Thutmose I saw the
impact, heard of the Hittite defeat, and realized it would be a good time to
re-assert Egyptian control of the North Syrian coastal ports.

For another separate and distinct biblical account of the "hapiru"
(Israelite)/Aleppan alliance, see Judges Chapters 1-3, wherin as an attempt
at reconciling the two different text sets the scribe gave Joshua the
impossible lifespan of some 110 years. More to the point is that immediately
after Joshua's conquests in Judges Chapter 2, the Israelites are visited
with destruction due to their alliance with the followers of Astarte and
Ba'al, the patron's of Alala. In other words Thutmose I invades, and some
40 years later, the Children of Ammon, in other words the Children of Amon
Ra, the Egyptians, attack Israel again under while under the rule of
Thutmose III (Judges 3:11-13).

In conclusion, we now have some six sets of documents referring to events at
the time of the Joshua Impact Event. If the Gebal Barbuk Inscription holds
up under scrutiny, it will be the seventh document and the second
contemporaneous account of the Joshus Impact Event which we will have. If
might be useful if Sorrenson could e-mail the Conference the full text of
the inscription and if it was posted to the Conference archives.

I'd now like to move on to a few personal memories of Ted Wertime, whose
work on meteoritic iron Sorrenson cited in his note. Ted was quite a
remarkable man. The first major event of Ted's life of which I have
knowledge was when his reconnaisance patrol was overrun by the Chinese in
Korea. Ted managed to get his crew out, and later personally helped with
the recovery of one of them who had suffered a head injury by getting music
therapy for him. Somewhat indicative of how our government works, for many
years therafter the army would continue to try to dun Ted for the jeep which
was lost during their escape.

Ted later entered diplomatic service, and moved to Iran after the
re-installation of the Shah, where he became a close friend of one of the
leading Farsi poets. After that he served in Greece until shortly after the
military coup which took place there under Nixon, at which time he promptly
resigned from government service.

Ted then began work at the Smithsonian on man and early metals, continuing
work which he had started while investigating ancient smelters while he was
posted to Iran. I ran into him at the Smithsonian because of my interest in
the area around Girvan in southern Scotland, and specifically because of the
many thousands of tons of unaccounted for and unexplained ash
which had been removed in the 1700's from the area just to the north of the
town. Ted had a house on the Greek island of Melos which was available and
needed some roof work done, but my researches carried me in another

What is this leading to? Goran will probably want to read Karen Reiter's
book "Die Metalle im Alten Orient", which I also mentioned in an earlier
post to the Conference. To re-cap, Reiter includes ancient iron as part of
her study of metals (Eisen, pages 344-399), and if it has to do with ancient
iron, which was nearly all meteoritic before about 1300 BCE, if its not in
there, then there is a reference to it there.

Reiter reaches the same conclusion that Ted and his colleague James Muhly of
the University of Pennsylvania reached so many years ago in their
compendium, "The Coming of the Age of Iron": There is a dramatic increase in
the supply of iron shortly after 1600 BCE, several hundred years before
smelted iron came into use; nearly all of this iron is meteoritic, and the
price of iron in terms of gold and silver dropped markedly.

Now for my part. Clearly this iron did not appear by magic, and it seems
most likely to me that the "great stones" of the Joshua/T'e
Hantilish/Tantalus impact event of ca. 1584 BCE were iron. Of course
barring the recovery of iron meteorites from the impact site itself, this
will only remain a hypothesis. This is the only information which will
allow a determination to be made whether the reference in Joshua to "hail
stones" is a later scribal correction, or a description of contemporaneous
atmospheric phenomenon.

Cheers from a snowy Virginia,
Usually people believe what they want to believe until reality intrudes.
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Re: The Walls of Jericho

Postby Minimalist » Sat Jul 11, 2009 10:17 am

No more annoying that Bigfoot sightings, E.P.

And about as scientifically reliable.
Something is wrong here. War, disease, death, destruction, hunger, filth, poverty, torture, crime, corruption, and the Ice Capades. Something is definitely wrong. This is not good work. If this is the best God can do, I am not impressed.

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Re: The Walls of Jericho

Postby E.P. Grondine » Sun Jul 12, 2009 11:52 am

Minimalist wrote:No more annoying that Bigfoot sightings, E.P.

And about as scientifically reliable.

As I made no mention of any bigfoot sightings, why are you bringing it up?

The history of the Ancient Near East is as I gave you. That's based on contemporaneous documents and remains.

The remains of the catastrophes are as I gave you. Big holes in the ground; layers deposited by impact mega-tsunami.

Orbital mechanics rely on the laws of physics, thus providing chronological locks - in addition to the tree ring dates, which evidence climate collapses.

The text of the Old Testament is as given, and parts of it appear to lock into that history and absolute chronology.

I'm not particularly interested in the ancient Israelites; nor in any person's beliefs.

My initial interest in this was determining what finally finished the "Minoans". Look at their murals: they were enjoying life; and had a technology/civilization about 2,000 years ahead of their contemporaries.

It wasn't simply the eruption of Thera that did them in.

They put those deafened/injured to work decorating pottery.

It was an impact that destroyed their armies, leaving them open for conquest.

That you view Bronze Age archaeology/protohistory as a threat to your atheism is your problem, not mine. My problem now is far more serious.

The problem is that history shows that millions of people have been killed by impact, and they will happen again and NASA is spending $0 on the hazard.

I wish I could be more pleasant, and leave you in your confusion about past events.
Because of NASA's lack of response, I can't.
Usually people believe what they want to believe until reality intrudes.
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Re: The Walls of Jericho

Postby Minimalist » Sun Jul 12, 2009 12:11 pm

E.P., modern archaeology has dismissed the OT as any form of "reliable history."

Believe it if you like, it's no skin off my nose. But by catering to the fundamentalist fringe you are painting yourself into a corner. You have complained about being called a "kook" but, when you start talking about Atlantis you have to realize that it is a risk you take. That word is a lightning rod for the scientific community. Even Graham Hancock avoided using it.

Some twelve to fourteen centuries of "Abrahamic" religious development, the cultural wellspring that has given us not only Judaism but Islam and Christianity, have thus been erased. Judaism appears to have been the product not of some dark and nebulous period of early history but of a more modern age of big-power politics in which every nation aspired to the imperial greatness of a Babylon or an Egypt. Judah, the sole remaining Jewish outpost by the late eighth century B.C., was a small, out-of-the-way kingdom with little in the way of military or financial clout. Yet at some point its priests and rulers seem to have been seized with the idea that their national deity, now deemed to be nothing less than the king of the universe, was about to transform them into a great power. They set about creating an imperial past commensurate with such an empire, one that had the southern heroes of David and Solomon conquering the northern kingdom and making rival kings tremble throughout the known world. From a "henotheistic" cult in which Yahweh was worshiped as the chief god among many, they refashioned the national religion so that henceforth Yahweh would be worshiped to the exclusion of all other deities. One law, that of Yahweh, would now reign supreme.
Something is wrong here. War, disease, death, destruction, hunger, filth, poverty, torture, crime, corruption, and the Ice Capades. Something is definitely wrong. This is not good work. If this is the best God can do, I am not impressed.

-- George Carlin
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Re: The Walls of Jericho

Postby E.P. Grondine » Mon Jul 13, 2009 9:14 am

Minimalist wrote:E.P., modern archaeology has dismissed the OT as any form of "reliable history."

Funny how that works, or rather doesn't work.

What has happened is that the OT is used for various national purposes by the nations who fund archaeologists.

My original interest was with the Minoans, and they are all dead. No nation, you see.
Usually people believe what they want to believe until reality intrudes.
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Re: The Walls of Jericho

Postby Minimalist » Mon Jul 13, 2009 10:20 am

There is no argument that archaeology is being used for nationalistic purposes on both sides, even today. There are, however, a large number of primarily Israeli archaeologists who will not play that game.

Back in the late 19th and early 20th century the region was blanketed by priests masquerading as archaeologists who set out with funding from church-backed foundations or colleges with a mandate to "prove" the bible. As a result every stone they picked up was deemed to be something that Moses pissed on. The whole thing began to come apart in the aftermath of the 1967 war when those Israeli scholars suddenly had access to the West Bank and Sinai. The mythology crumbled like a house of cards.

Still, the focus of groups like Elad on trying to perpetuate the myth of Ancient Israel seems stunningly irrelevant. If they found a deed from the Byzantines to Muhammad himself giving title to Jerusalem to the Muslims would the Israelis say, "you're right, we'll pull our tanks out and go somewhere else?"

I don't think so.
Something is wrong here. War, disease, death, destruction, hunger, filth, poverty, torture, crime, corruption, and the Ice Capades. Something is definitely wrong. This is not good work. If this is the best God can do, I am not impressed.

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Re: The Walls of Jericho

Postby E.P. Grondine » Mon Dec 03, 2012 5:47 pm

You know, min, I never did get a chance to compare the prophets and their droughts with the paleo tree ring database.
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Re: The Walls of Jericho

Postby Minimalist » Mon Dec 03, 2012 7:29 pm

Might be a good project for you!
Something is wrong here. War, disease, death, destruction, hunger, filth, poverty, torture, crime, corruption, and the Ice Capades. Something is definitely wrong. This is not good work. If this is the best God can do, I am not impressed.

-- George Carlin
Posts: 15426
Joined: Mon Sep 26, 2005 1:09 pm
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